Chapter 5 - Healthy Me - Normal Me Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me


Complete the following statements.


One of the criteria of well adjusted behaviour is ___________.

OPTIONS

  • Intelligence

  • Openness to new experience

  • Success

  • Artistic ability



According to the humanistic perspective, every individual strives for ___________.

OPTIONS

  • Absence of problems

  • Absence of mental disorder

  • Enjoyment in life

  • Development of one’s abilities to the fullest



According to ____________ perspective, one of the causes of abnormality is 'genetic predisposition’.

OPTIONS

  • Behavioural

  • Biological

  • Sociocultural

  • Cognitive



__________ face the identity crisis.

OPTIONS

  • Children

  • Adolescents

  • Young adults

  • Old people



State whether the following statement is True or False and justify your answer with reason.


Sucheta has an IQ which falls into the category of genius which is rare to find. 'Genius’ is a statistical deviance. Therefore, she is abnormal.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Sucheta has an IQ which falls into the category of genius which is rare to find. 'Genius’ is a statistical deviance. Therefore, she is abnormal. - False

Explanation:

  1. According to the American psychologist Lewis M. Terman, a person who has an IQ of 140 is considered to be a genius. That is completely normal because human beings only tend to use 3% of their brains and that is way less than then their potential.

  2. If she had an IQ of 155 or above, she would be considered extraordinary, meaning she is able to do a lot of mental calculations and problem-solving.



It is very rare to find a person possessing all the criteria of well adjusted person.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

It is very rare to find a person possessing all the criteria of well adjusted person. - True



Over expectation from the parents can lead to lack of self confidence.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Over expectation from the parents can lead to lack of self confidence. - True

Explanation:

The parents expectations to do something of their child, as the children now know he does have that ability to do it. but parents over expectations can lead to lack of self confidence.



Well adjusted individual does not encounter failure at all.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Well adjusted individual does not encounter failure at all. - False

Explanation:

A well adjusted person may be less likely to encounter failures. but failure itself is something that cannot be conquered. We can lessen our chances of failure but never cancel it out. Failure is a vital part of life. It is what empowers us to achieve success.

 



Abnormality is always hereditary.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Abnormality is always hereditary. - False

Explanation:

Hereditary is only one aspect of abnormality. There are many other reasons behind abnormality like loss of a loved one, natural disaster, accident, etc.



Self awareness is being passionate about fulfilling one’s needs.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Self awareness is being passionate about fulfilling one’s needs. - False

Explanation:

Self awareness is “an awareness of one’s own personality or individuality,” Cam Caldwell, says, “Self-awareness is an effort. It’s a conscious effort to invest in understanding who we are, who others are, our universal rules that we apply in life, and our commitment to the future.”



Social skill is the ability to interact well with others.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Social skill is the ability to interact well with others. - True

Explanation:

Because interaction needs communication and communication is possible only with social skills.



Openness to new experience leads to dangerous situations, therefore it should not be encouraged.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Openness to new experience leads to dangerous situations, therefore it should not be encouraged. - False

Explanation:

The above statement situation does not apply everywhere sometimes only it proof wrong otherwise openness to new experience mostly lead to profit for an individual.



Identify the odd item from the following.

OPTIONS

  • Self awareness

  • Self regulation

  • Self motivation

  • Sympathy

  • Social skills



OPTIONS

  • Cognitive perspective

  • Humanistic perspective

  • Psychoanalytic perspective

  • Motivational perspective



OPTIONS

  • Failure

  • High Anxiety

  • Negative thoughts

  • High self esteem

  • Self blame



OPTIONS

  • Deviance

  • Personal distress

  • Low intelligence

  • Impaired functioning



Match the following.

Column A

Column B

(1) The emphasis upon Unconscious mind

(a) Biological

(2) Survival and reproduction are the purpose of mental processes

(b) Cognitive

(3) Chemical changes the brain

(c) Psychoanalytic

(4) Abnormal behaviour is due to faulty learning

(d) Evolutionary

(5) Emphasis upon thinking process

(e) Sociocultural



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

(1) The emphasis upon Unconscious mind

(c) Psychoanalytic

(2) Survival and reproduction are the purpose of mental processes

(d) Evolutionary

(3) Chemical changes the brain

(a) Biological

(4) Abnormal behaviour is due to faulty learning

(e) Sociocultural

(5) Emphasis upon thinking process

(b) Cognitive




Column A

Column B

(i) Stress and storm

(1) Used for gaining more power

(ii) Body image

(2) Adolescence

(iii) Bullying

(3) May lead to lack of self confidence

(iv) Low self esteem

(4) Childhood

(v) Nurturance

(5) Anorexia

 

(6) Feminine trait



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

(i) Stress and storm

(2) Adolescence

(ii) Body image

(5) Anorexia

(iii) Bullying

(1) Used for gaining more power

(iv) Low self esteem

(3) May lead to lack of self confidence

(v) Nurturance

(6) Feminine trait



Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words.



Explain the concept of realistic perception of self with an example.


SOLUTION

In the concept of realistic perception of self the person has a self-awareness i.e., they have a realistic picture of their potential, strengths, and weaknesses. They try to build up their potential and modify or accept their weaknesses. They accept success and failure as part of life. They do not have unrealistic expectations from others and hence tend to have comfortable conflict-free relationships.



What is emotional intelligence?


SOLUTION

The term emotional intelligence was first coined by Michel Beldoch and elaborated upon by Daniel Goleman. According to John Mayer and Peter Salovey, 'emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive one's own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one's thinking and actions'.

The four proposed abilities of emotional intelligence are -

  • perceiving emotions

  • using emotions to facilitate thought

  • understanding emotions

  • managing emotions



Mention the components of emotional intelligence.


SOLUTION

The components of emotional intelligence are -

Chapter 5 - Healthy Me - Normal Me Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


What are the conditions that lead to low self esteem? Give examples.


SOLUTION

Self esteem refers to an individual's sense of self worth and personal values. Our overall evaluation of our worth as persons, high or low, based on all our positive and negative self perceptions is referred to as 'self esteem'.

The conditions that lead to low self esteem are negative thoughts, high anxiety leading to self blame, poor performance, and even failure. Those with low self esteem lack confidence, initiative, feeling of worth and self respect. They are unable to show assertiveness or to express themselves appropriately.



What is the significance of openness to new experiences?


SOLUTION

Well-adjusted individuals tend to think and act in individualistic, imaginative, and creative ways. They are willing to explore new experiences and choices, take risks, and are comfortable with novelty and change. They can easily deal with strangers and with complexity and ambiguity. They are confident in voicing their opinion honestly.



How does self awareness affect psychological well being?


SOLUTION

The person who has self awareness not only recognizes his or her emotions but also understands the causes of the emotions. The individual is aware of his/her actions, moods, and emotions, his/her strengths and weaknesses. This makes him/her well adjusted i.e., it positively affects his/her well being. He/she makes efforts to overcome his/her weaknesses and enhance his/her strengths.



What is the significance of self motivation?


SOLUTION

The significance of self motivation means setting the goal, being fully involved in its attainment without trying to seek out external rewards. When something goes wrong, the person should not focus on 'What is wrong with me/you/us?' but should ask 'What can l/you/we do to solve the issue?' It helps the person to focus on the goal with determination and perseverance as attaining the goal will be self rewarding.



Enlist the qualities a person requires for having healthy relationships with others.


SOLUTION

Effective relationships refer to the ability to interact satisfactorily with others using social skills like communication, active listening, persuasiveness, genuineness empathy, etc.



How important are the social skills? Give example.


SOLUTION

Social skills are skills needed to function well in society such as the ability to interact satisfactorily with others using skills like communication, active listening, persuasiveness, genuineness empathy, etc. Social skills help the individual to form satisfactory relationships and exhibit appropriate, prosocial behaviour for e.g., Minaz is a good team member as she has social skills of communication, cooperation, and persuasiveness.



State the biological perspective to abnormal behaviour with an example.


SOLUTION

The biological perspective focuses on biological factors like genetics as the cause of abnormal behaviour. It is treated as an 'illness' and cured through 'treatments' such as drugs, etc., instead of psychological intervention.



Explain the humanistic perspective.


SOLUTION

The humanistic perspective explains that humans are driven to develop to their fullest possible potential (self actualization). Hence, any barriers in the path to self actualization will result in adjustment problems.



Explain the sociocultural perspective to abnormal behaviour.


SOLUTION

Societal expectations and cultural norms often lead to maladaptive behaviour for e.g., poor body image and eating disorders are often noticed in teenage girls as some cultures focus on a 'slim, feminine' shape.



Compare and contrast.

Realistic perception of self - Unrealistic perception of self



SOLUTION

Having a realistic perception of self is the criteria of a well adjusted individual. Such an individual is aware of his/her potential and limitations. They try to use their potential optimally and accept or modify their limitations. They develop a capacity to deal with life effectively. They have realistic expectations from self and others. Those with an unrealistic perception of self, lack self awareness and self motivation, and experience conflict. They are generally maladjusted as well as unable to get along with others.



Openness to new experiences - Inhibitions/fear of new experiences


SOLUTION

Openness to new experiences is a criteria of good adjustment. People who show openness to new experiences are imaginative, creative, intellectually curious, willing to try new things, and to take moderate risks as they have confidence in themselves. They may think and act in individualistic and often nonconforming ways. They enjoy challenges, adventure, and accept the unfamiliar. Inhibition to new experiences makes the person conservative, intolerant, resistant to change, and highly suspicious or avoidant of things that are unfamiliar or ambiguous.



High self esteem - Low self esteem


SOLUTION

People with high self esteem have the responsibility, goal commitment, show genuineness, internal values, positivity, and self improvement.

People with low self esteem have feelings of unhappiness, anxiety, superiority, or inferiority, show impatience, and act negatively with self or others, and have externally oriented goals.



Sympathy - Empathy


SOLUTION

Sympathy is expressed when a person is emotionally moved by the pain or distress of another person. We feel sorry for that person for their grief or failure or misfortune for e.g., we feel sympathy for victims of a terrorist attack.

Empathy means to feel the same emotions as someone in distress, to imagine ourself in his/her position, and experience all the sensations involved in that position. It is a more intense and higher-level emotion than sympathy. It involves putting yourself in someone else's place and experiencing their pain or grief. It involves being sensitive to and accepting of the feelings and experiences of another as if it was our own feeling or experience.



Behavioural perspective - Humanistic perspective to abnormality


SOLUTION

Behavioural perspective explains that abnormal behaviour is due to a failure to learn appropriate behaviours or due to learning of maladaptive behaviours. Ineffective techniques of learning to cope with stress causes abnormality. The treatment for this is to reshape or to eliminate the maladaptive behaviour and replace it with more adaptive skills of coping. For this, the principles of reinforcement, learning, modelling, etc., may be used.

Humanistic perspective attributes abnormal behaviours to blocked personal growth. Human beings are driven to grow, change, adapt and develop to their fullest potential. If this does not happen, it leads to problems. i.e., if there is incongruence between the real self and ideal self or overdependence on the positive regard of others, then abnormal behaviour is a consequence. The therapy is focused on helping the person become more inner-directed, develop self awareness towards enhanced personal growth.



Short notes


What are the possible consequences of Geeta is more interested in literature but being only daughter of a well-established Orthopaedic surgeon having his own hospital, she is under pressure of choosing medial profession as her career.


SOLUTION

Geeta will face a serious dilemma since if she follows her father's choice and becomes a doctor, she may lack the aptitude and also feel frustrated. However, if she pursues her interest in literature, she may upset her parents and lose their support. In such a case, Geeta can try to make her parents understand her desires, or she may give in to her parent's wishes and also continue with literature as a hobby.


What are the possible consequences of Sujata is an intelligent girl but she is extremely sensitive to criticism and perceives herself as less competent.


SOLUTION

Sujata must build up self awareness by taking a realistic view of her abilities. At present, since she gives importance to the views of others (criticism which may not always be fair) she has low self esteem and perceives herself as less competent. She will fall into the vicious cycle of low self esteem i.e., negative thoughts, low self efficacy, high anxiety leading to poor performance and failure.



What are the possible consequences of Trisha is not able to make friends. She cannot initiate conversation with strangers at all. She is placed as a leader of one of the teams for campus-cleaning.


SOLUTION

Trisha exhibits traits of an introvert. She is placed as a leader of the team for campus-cleaning. She may panic and try to get out of the situation for fear of failure. She may show high anxiety leading to poor performance. However, it could also happen that she may accept the challenge of leading the team and be successful in it.


What will you do if you see your best friend bullying your classmate?


SOLUTION

I will try to reason with my friend and find out the causes of his/her bullying behaviour. I will explain to him/her the serious consequences of bullying and also that bullying/ragging is also a criminal offense and can get my friend into trouble.



What will you do if you see a girl in your class who is not included in many of the classroom activities, who does not have any friend and who faces rejection from everyone?


SOLUTION

A girl who is friendless or faces rejection is bound to experience personal distress leading to depression, social withdrawal, etc. I will try to interact with her, even at the cost of others mocking me or isolating me. I will try to show her empathy.



What will you do if you got very less marks in the First Terminal exam?


SOLUTION

I will feel bad that I have scored less marks in the exam. I will try to analyse the reasons for getting a low score and then work on those aspects. I will remain positive that I can overcome this failure and utilize my potential to score high marks.



What will you do if you are very much interested in taking part in a drama to be performed in the annual function of your college, but you are not selected?


SOLUTION

I will try to find out the reasons for not being selected for e.g., may be I am not a good performer and do not deserve to be in the drama. I will evaluate if I want to become a better actor by rehearsing more or joining acting workshops, etc., or I may look for other creative avenues more suited to my potential. e.g., painting.



Write a short note in 50-60 words.

Criteria of well-adjusted person



SOLUTION

Mental Health refers to our cognitive, emotional and behavioural well being. It affects our physical health, relationships, etc. The term 'mental health' is sometimes used to mean an absence of mental illness or any mental disorder. It is the state of functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behaviour adjustment by a person.

Normal behaviour refers to a common pattern of behaviours observed in the majority of people in a given society. This pattern adheres to the norms of society.

The criteria of well-adjusted individual include -

  1. Realistic perceptions of self and others - The person has self-awareness i.e., one has a realistic picture of one's potential, strengths and weaknesses. They try to build up their potential and modify or accept their weaknesses. They accept success and failure as part of life. They do not have unrealistic expectations from others and hence and tend to have comfortable, conflict-free relationships.

  2. Openness to new experiences - Well-adjusted individuals tend to think and act in individualistic, imaginative and creative ways. They are willing to explore new experiences and choices, take risks and are comfortable with novelty and change. They can easily deal with strangers and with complexity and ambiguity. They are confident in voicing their opinion-honestly.

  3. Emotional Intelligence - The term Emotional Intelligence was first coined by. Michel Beldoch and elaborated upon by Daniel Goleman. According to John Mayer and Peter Salovey, 'emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive one's own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one's thinking and actions'. The four proposed abilities of emotional intelligence are: perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions.
    The components of emotional intelligence are Self awareness, Self motivation, Self regulation, Empathy and Social skills.
    People with high emotional intelligence are able to process emotional information accurately and efficiently. They do not panic in difficult situations as they are able to control their emotions, deal with others in a better way and come up with a proper solution. They are well-adjusted individuals who are is able to empathize with others and establish successful social interactions. They show impulse control, social responsibility and relate to others in an age-appropriate manner.

  4. Capability to maintain healthy relationships -
    Chapter 5 - Healthy Me - Normal Me Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board
    Every relationship is a dynamic, living experience. It involves mutual respect, responsibility, honesty, cooperation and support, communication, respecting the others personal space, gratitude, flexibility, etc. Communication is the key to maintaining healthy relationships with family members, peers/colleagues/acquaintances and others in society.

  5. Self-esteem - Self esteem refers to the individual's sense of selfworth and personal value. Our overall evaluation of our worth as a person, high or low, based on all our positive and negative self perceptions is referred to as 'self esteem'. People with high self esteem show assertiveness, initiative, confidence, positive attitude, good communication skills, satisfaction and tend to have better relationships.



Criteria of abnormal behaviour


SOLUTION

Adjustment changes according to the situation. Frustration, 'burn out', etc., contribute to maladjustment. Abnormal behaviour is some behaviour that deviates markedly from what is considered as appropriate or acceptable behaviour. It is some behaviour that is socially unacceptable, distressing, self defeating, and causes some harm to the person(s).

The criteria for abnormality are as follows -

  1. Deviance - This includes statistical deviance e.g., IQ below 70 will be considered as intellectually deficient as the normal IQ is above 70. It also includes socio-cultural deviance. However, cultural relativity must be considered for e.g., being homeless is considered vagrancy in some cultures (abnormal behaviours) while among nomadic tribes e.g., Gypsies it is considered normal.

  2. Personal distress - It refers to the subjective feelings of the person in response to discomforting situations e.g., anxiety, depression, aggression, insomnia. Such individuals may perform daily activities adequately and appear normal to others but are miserable sometimes.

  3. Impaired functioning - The person is unable to adequately fulfill expected roles in the family, community, at work, etc. e.g., severe depression or phobias.



Psychoanalytic perspective


SOLUTION

This view of psychology given by Sigmund Freud emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behaviour displaying abnormal behaviour. It holds that psychological disorders are the consequence of anxiety produced by unresolved, unconscious conflicts. Treatment focuses on the identification and resolution of these conflicts. It emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind and conflicts that can be traced back to childhood. According to Freud unconscious motives I conflicts have based on primitive sexual and aggressive instincts.



Cognitive perspective


SOLUTION

According to this perspective, people engage in abnormal behaviour because of their recurrent maladaptive thoughts and behaviours that are often based upon their false assumptions. Treatment involves helping the maladjusted individual to adapt to a new thinking process. Therapy is a process of unlearning maladaptive thinking and replacing it with a more adaptive one. This area of psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem-solving, language, and decision making.



Bullying


SOLUTION

Some adolescents get constantly humiliated and taunted by others or fall victim to other people's aggression because they have less power or prestige. They are not weak but they are not able to stand up for themselves. They become the target of continuous attacks. Bullying is very common all around the world. Almost all bullies are also victims and vice versa. Bullies and victims are generally low in self esteem. To improve their self-esteem, they tend to get aggressive. They accept a ruthless manipulative approach to life. They don't trust others and they think that they can easily break their promises and take unfair advantage of others. They are more likely to respond to stress with aggression (lashing out at someone physically or mentally) or by engaging in self destructive behaviour.



Sexual orientation


SOLUTION

It refers to an individual's pattern of physical and emotional arousal towards other persons. Heterosexual individuals are attracted to persons of the opposite sex. Adolescents become conscious of their sexual orientation and it may become difficult for him/her to accept that his/her sexual orientation is different from that of peers.



Emotional Intelligence


SOLUTION

The term Emotional Intelligence was first by Michel Beldoch and elaborated upon by Daniel Goleman. According to John Mayer and Peter Salovey, 'emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive one's own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use that information to guide one's thinking and actions'. The four proposed abilities of emotional intelligence are; perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate though, understanding emotions, and managing emotions. The components of emotional intelligence are self awareness, self regulation, self motivation, empathy, effective relationships.



Read the following case carefully and answer the questions based upon that.

Pritha was a merit holder girl from a middle class family. She joined a college where majority of students were from a rich backgrounds. Although she was capable of following lectures and was doing well in her studies, she felt lonely as she could not get acceptance in the groups of her classmates coming from affluent families. She tried to dress like them and started asking for extra pocket money from her parents. Her classmates joked at her dressing sense. She could not tolerate the mockery and stopped going to the college. Instead, she started spending time visiting strange places like public parks, railway stations, and shopping malls. She did not appear for any of her exams. Her parents were unaware of all these things and on asking about college or studies, Pritha answered them without revealing the truth. At the end of the year, her parents received her report card by post from her college with a remark that 'Your ward has to take College Leaving certificate.’

On confronting Pritha, she became violent and started damaging the furniture uttering bad words about the middle class people, and thereafter her utterance was incomprehensible for her parents. This continued for a very long time.

  1. Which problems did Pritha face in her college?

  2. Could Pritha, according to you, have avoided her condition of 'feeling lonely’?

  3. What would you do if you were in Pritha’s place?

  4. Do you think Pritha should have spoken to her parents about her feelings at college? If yes, how it would have helped her?



SOLUTION

  1. Pritha faced problems such as not being accepted by her classmates. This lead to her feeling lonely and left out. She was ridiculed by her affluent peers.

  2. Pritha could have concentrated on her studies or tried to find some trustworthy friends. She should have maintained her own identity instead of trying to mould herself like her classmates or feeling insecure about her socio-economic status.

  3. If I was in Pritha's place, I would have confided in my parents about my predicament and sought their advice. I would have proved my merit in studies and extracurricular activities so that those who were mocking me would be no longer so rude.

  4. Yes, she should have spoken to her parents instead of hiding the truth from them. Their support and guidance would have helped her faced the situation, in a better way.



Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.



What are the criteria of abnormal behaviour? Explain with examples.


SOLUTION

Abnormal behaviour is some behaviour that deviates markedly from what is considered as appropriate or acceptable behaviour. It is some behaviour that is socially unacceptable, distressing, self-defeating and causes some harm to the person(s).

The criteria for abnormality are as follows -

  1. Deviance - This includes statistical deviance e.g., IQ below 70 will be considered as intellectually deficient as the average normal IQ is above 70. It also includes socio-cultural deviance. However, cultural relativity must be considered for e.g., being homeless is considered vagrancy in some cultures (abnormal behaviours) while among nomadic tribes e.g., Gypsies it is considered normal.

  2. Personal distress - It refers to the subjective feelings of the person in response to discomforting situations e.g., anxiety, depression, aggression, insomnia. Such individuals may perform daily activities adequately and appear normal to others but are miserable sometimes.

  3. Impaired functioning - The person is unable to adequately fulfill expected roles in the family, community, at work, etc., for e.g., severe depression or phobias.

No single criteria is sufficient to explain abnormal behaviour. If only statistical deviance is considered then even very superior intelligence (IQ 130 and above) will have to be considered as abnormal as it is not found in the majority of people. However, those who deviate from legal/social norms can be considered as showing abnormal behaviour. It causes discomfort to the person i.e., restlessness, lack of concentration, social withdrawal, etc. This behaviour interferes with personal and social welfare and is highly maladjusted.



What are the causes of abnormal behaviour?


SOLUTION

There are different perspectives of causes of abnormal behaviour such as -

  1. Biological perspective - Focuses on biological factors as the cause of abnormal behaviour. It is treated as an 'illness' and cured through 'treatments' such as drugs, etc. instead of psychological interventions.

  2. Evolutionary perspectives - It suggests that the brain evolved to solve problems encountered by our ancestors. Mental processes exist to serve the purposes of reproduction and survival. Hence, abnormal behaviour may be an exaggerated form of an adaptive reaction.

  3. Behavioural perspective - Abnormal behaviour develops due to inappropriate learning or modelling. So therapy attempts to modify such behaviour using principles of learning reinforcement, etc.

  4. Cognitive perspective - Recurrent, faulty thinking based on false assumptions leads to maladaptive behaviour. Therapy involves getting rid of inappropriate thinking.

  5. Psycho-analytic perspective - It emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind and early childhood experiences. Psychological disorders are a result of unresolved conflicts or urge that are rooted in our primitive sexual and aggressive instincts.

  6. Humanistic perspective - It explains that humans are driven to develop to their fullest possible potential. Hence, any barriers will result in adjustment problems.

  7. Socio-cultural perspective - Societal expectations and cultural norms often lead to maladaptive behaviour for e.g., poor body image and eating disorders are often noticed in teenage girls as some cultures focus on a 'slim, feminine' shape.

Causes of abnormal behaviour can also be explained using two models:

  1. Stress Diathesis model -
    Chapter 5 - Healthy Me - Normal Me Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board
                                        Stress diathesis model
    Diathesis refers to a predisposition or vulnerability of a person to develop a particular disorder. According to the Stress-Diathesis model, a disorder results from genetic factors (nature) as well as life experiences (nurture). Those genetically predisposed towards a particular disorder and experiencing environmental stress are more likely to show abnormal behaviour.

  2. Biopsychosocial model - The Biopsychosocial refers to the interaction of biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors in the development of abnormal behaviour. If a child is brought up in inconducive environmental conditions, it will make him/her vulnerable to abnormal behaviour.



Describe the challenges faced by adolescents with examples.


SOLUTION

Adolescence is a period of storm and stress. They experience physiological and emotional changes during this stage. Adolescents are in search of self-identity. Some of them may have a poor body image, experience mood swings, lack of self confidence, or even have an inferiority complex.

Some of the major challenges faced by adolescents are -

  1. Sexual Orientation - It refers to an individual's pattern of physical and emotional arousal towards other persons. Heterosexual individuals are attracted to persons of the opposite sex. Adolescents become conscious of their sexual orientation and it may become difficult for him/her to accept that his/her sexual orientation is different from that of peers.

  2. Gender Identity - It refers to a perception of one's own gender which may or may not corresponds to their birth sex. It is affected by gender role expectations from society. Some adolescents may show traits associated with the other gender causing adjustment problems. Bern's test to assess gender identity suggests traits of masculinity like assertiveness, dominance, self-sufficiency, etc., and of femininity is nurturance, empathy, etc. When teenagers are inhibited from behaving in a way that is natural for him/her, they may become timid or rebellious.

  3. Bullying - It refers to a form of aggressive behaviour, displayed by both boys and girls to gain power/prestige. Males indulge in bullying as part of powerful groups. Victims of bullying have low self-esteem, lack trust in others, engage in self-destructive behaviour, or fall into depression.


Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

The answers for the Balbharati books are the best study material for students. These Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Story of Psychology

 • Chapter 2: Branches of Psychology

 • Chapter 3: Self

 • Chapter 4: Human Development

 • Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me

 • Chapter 6: Stress

 • Chapter 7: Nervous System

 • Chapter 8: Memory


Balbharati Solutions for Class 11th Standard FYJC Maharashtra.

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HSC ECONOMICS MARCH 2020

HSC OCM MARCH 2020

HSC ACCOUNTS MARCH 2020

HSC S.P. MARCH 2020

HSC ENGLISH MARCH 2020

HSC HINDI MARCH 2020

HSC MARATHI MARCH 2020

HSC MATHS MARCH 2020

SSC Maharashtra Board Papers 2020

(Std 10th English Medium)

English MARCH 2020

HindI MARCH 2020

Hindi (Composite) MARCH 2020

Marathi MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Mathematics (Paper 2) MARCH 2020

Sanskrit MARCH 2020

Sanskrit (Composite) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 1) MARCH 2020

Science (Paper 2)

Geography Model Set 1 2020-2021

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