Chapter 4 - Human Development Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 4: Human Development


Complete the following statements.



The rate of development in each stage is _________

OPTIONS

  • Same

  • Different

  • Slow



Developmental changes occur in __________ pattern.

OPTIONS

  • Predictable

  • Unpredictable

  • Uncertain



The period between conception to birth is called __________

OPTIONS

  • Postnatal

  • Perinatal

  • Prenatal


_________ period is also known as the period of identity crisis.

OPTIONS

  • Childhood

  • Middle age

  • Adolescence



Match the following pairs.

Column A

Column B

1. Early childhood

a) A single fertilized cell

2. Adolescence

b) From second week to 2 years after birth

3. Infancy

c) Age of Questioning

4. Zygote

d) Adjusting to the new environment after birth

5. Neonatal period

e) Storm and stress



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

1. Early childhood

c) Age of Questioning

2. Adolescence

e) Storm and stress

3. Infancy

b) From second week to 2 years after birth

4. Zygote

a) A single fertilized cell

5. Neonatal period

d) Adjusting to the new environment after birth



State whether the following statements are true or false.



Development has a specific and continuous pattern.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



Development proceeds from specific to general.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



Development proceeds through dependency to independence.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



All the changes in an individual are due to development.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False


Identify the odd item from the following.

OPTIONS

  • Zygote

  • Neonate

  • Embryo

  • Foetus



OPTIONS

  • Early childhood

  • Neonate

  • Foetus

  • Infancy



Explain the following concepts.



Explain characteristics of human development.


SOLUTION

Development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur due to maturation and experience.

The characteristics of development are -

  1. Development follows a specific pattern.

  2. Development takes place in a specific direction. Physical development follows the cephalocaudal principle and proximodistal principles.

  3. Development is continuous and predictable.

  4. Development proceeds from general to specific.

  5. The rate of development is different for different body parts.

  6. There are individual differences in development.



Why is prenatal period is the most crucial period in development?


SOLUTION

The prenatal period extends from conception till the birth of the neonate.

The prenatal period is the most crucial period in development because favourable conditions in this stage foster the development of hereditary potential. However, inconducive conditions can block the development of potential and hinder future development. Factors like malnourishment, diseases, drug intake, severe stress, etc., in a pregnant woman, can severely affect fetal development.



What are the developmental tasks?


SOLUTION

Developmental tasks refer to a set of social expectations about developmental changes at a particular developmental stage.

Developmental psychologists have established the norms of development to know the skills and behaviours that are excepted at a particular age. Developmental tasks are the expected developments at specific ages e.g., toilet training or learning to speak by age 2 years.



Describe the neonatal stage.


SOLUTION

Neonatal stage extends from birth till two weeks. It is the shortest stage of the postnatal period. The neonate has to make radical adjustments such as breathing, feeding, elimination, etc. It is a time of transition from the prenatal to the postnatal period.



What are the characteristics of early childhood?


SOLUTION

Early childhood extends from 2 years - 6 years of age.

The characteristics of this stage are -

  1. The child becomes physically independent.

  2. It is the 'preschool age' as the child begins going to preschool, e.g., nursery school is the first step in formal education.

  3. Many children experience 'separation anxiety'.

  4. It is the 'pregnant age' as the child begins to mix around and form friends.

  5. It is the 'questioning age' and 'age of curiosity' as the child is curious about his/her body, the surroundings and hence asks many questions.



Write the characteristics of late childhood.


SOLUTION

Late childhood extends from 6 years to 11 years.

The characteristics of late childhood are -

  1. It is the period of skill development, i.e., fundamental skills in language, calculations, eye-hand coordination, and other cognitive abilities develop along with micro-skills like prehension.

  2. It is the 'gang age' as boys and girls tend to form their separate groups.

  3. It is a troublesome age as the child may become stubborn and rebellious.

  4. It is a critical period in the achievement drive.



Describe the problems during adolescence.


SOLUTION

Adolescence is the period between late childhood and youth, i.e., between 12 years to 19 years. It is the stage of development of abstract thinking, search for independence and identity, and of rapid, visible physical changes. It is called the period of storm and stress.

The problems faced by an adolescent are -

  1. Concerns about physical-physiological development.

  2. Concerns about career and academics.

  3. Peer pressure which may lead to internet/drug addiction.

  4. Communication gap with parents.

  5. Depression due to failed relationships, failure in exams, over-expectation by parents, getting bullied, etc. It may lead to high levels of stress and even suicidal tendencies.

  6. Identity crisis, i.e., they explore their identity through various identity statuses like foreclosure diffusion, moratorium, and achievement.



Short notes


Write a note on adulthood.


SOLUTION

Adulthood extends between 20 years - 40 years of age.

The main concerns in adulthood (youth) are -

  1. career choice and economic independence, i.e., getting established in life

  2. setting down, i.e., marriage, family and assuming responsibility

  3. adjustment to new responsibilities changed experiences and new lifestyle



Explain the adjustment problems in middle age.


SOLUTION

Middle age ranges between 40 years - 60 years.

The main adjustment problems in this stage are -

  1. Periods of physical and mental deterioration.

  2. Period of approaching retirement and old age.

  3. Period of loneliness and especially in women there is "the empty nest syndrome".

  4. Period of midlife transition, evaluation of achievements, and of failures in life.



Write about internal factors affecting human development.


SOLUTION

Human development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. It is affected by internal as well as external factors.

The internal factors that influence development are -

  1. Heredity - Genetic endowment in the form of genes and chromosomes influence growth and development.

  2. Maturation - The natural unfolding of genetic potential at the appropriate time influences phylogenetic functions like crawling, walking, etc.

  3. Endocrine glands - Hormones secreted by endocrine glands such as the Pituitary gland, Thyroid, Adrenal glands, etc., are released directly into the bloodstream and play an important role in body metabolism, homeostasis, growth, and development. for e.g., under secretion of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland may result in dwarfism.



Write about external factors affecting human development.


SOLUTION

Human development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. It is affected by internal as well as external factors.

The external factors affecting development are -

  • Nutrition - Nutrients like proteins, minerals, vitamins, etc must be available in sufficient amounts.

  • Rest and sleep - Rest and sleep help to maintain a physio-chemical equilibrium of the body.

  • Exercise - Exercise helps to improve metabolism and to develop motor skills leading to better development.

  • Learning - Learning takes place by training, by practice and experience, and by observation and imitation of other's behaviours.

  • Environment - It includes family, neighbourhood, religion, culture, etc.



Discuss the application of the principles of human development in different fields.


SOLUTION

Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience. Hereditary potential as well as the physical and social environment are the factors that determine development. Development occurs at the appropriate times in various aspects, be it physical, cognitive, emotional, or social. There is a certain pattern and sequence in development. Therefore, it is predictable. We can observe developmental norms and spot deviations in certain cases. Development begins right from conception and continues throughout life till death. Each of the various stages of development is marked with certain typical changes and problems. Based upon the norms of development, there is a set of expectations about changes in an individual at a certain age developmental tasks. This enables parents, counsellors, teachers, etc., to understand and evaluate a child's development. It also helps in detecting skill level, progress, delays, problem, etc., in development.



Compare and contrast:

Growth and development



SOLUTION

Development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. It is the pattern of progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life. Development results from an interaction between maturation and exposure to training and environmental factors. It is all inclusive.

Growth refers to quantitative changes that are physical, observable, and measurable like an increase in size, weight, etc. It is a part of development.

Development involves the individual as a whole. It includes both quantitative and qualitative changes. It is always a continuous process. Growth refers to changes in particular aspects of the body i.e. changes in size or body proportion. Growth is not continuous as it generally stops at puberty. It need not involve progressive changes. Growth may or may not bring about development for e.g., the child may grow in terms of height, weight but not show any functional improvements.



Maturation and development


SOLUTION

Development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. It is the pattern of progressive, orderly, and predictable changes that begin at conception and continue throughout life. Development results from an interaction between maturation and exposure to training and environmental factors. It is all inclusive.

Maturation refers to the natural unfolding of the genetic potential at the appropriate time in the course of development. It is species-specific.

Maturational events cannot be speeded up by special efforts as they are not dependent on training/learning or other environmental factors.



Prenatal and postnatal stages of development


SOLUTION

Prenatal period extends from conception till birth. The heredity and sex of the person is determined at conception. This stage lasts for 238 - 290 days or 9 calendar months. Proportionally, faster growth and development takes place during this period as compared to an individual's entire life. Favourable conditions such as proper nutrition, etc., of the mother, foster healthy fetal development.

Postnatal stage extends from birth till death i.e., from the neonatal period till the end of life. Heredity, maturation, and learning play an important role in postnatal development. It includes physical, motor, cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development of the individual through stages like neonate, infant, child, adolescent, youth, middle age, and old age


Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

The answers for the Balbharati books are the best study material for students. These Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Story of Psychology

 • Chapter 2: Branches of Psychology

 • Chapter 3: Self

 • Chapter 4: Human Development

 • Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me

 • Chapter 6: Stress

 • Chapter 7: Nervous System

 • Chapter 8: Memory


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