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### Chapter 6 - Stress Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 6: Stress

# Complete the following statements.

OPTIONS

• Worries

• Stress

• Depression

OPTIONS

• Eustress

• Hypostress

• Distress

## __________ is necessary for better performance.

OPTIONS

• High stress

• Moderate stress

• Low stress

OPTIONS

• Internal

• External

• Imposed

OPTIONS

• Frustration

• Anger

• Conflict

# State whether the following statement is True or False. If false, correct them, if true explain why.

## Well-adjusted person does not experience stress at all.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Well-adjusted person does not experience stress at all. - True

Explanation:

Well-adjusted people are more open to new experiences. They don’t mind trying new things. They dare to take risks regarding unknown experiences. They have confidence in themselves to explore and try new things. They are like to expressing gratitude, kindness, and sharing, accepting success and failures as part of life.

## Stress can be good sometimes.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Stress can be good sometimes. - True

Explanation:

Stress in small doses can be beneficial for us in terms of increased energy and mental alertness. This type of stress is considered good. For example, feeling mildly stressed when carrying out a project or assignment often compels us to do a good job, focus better, and work energetically.

## Hyperstress leads to the best performance.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Hyperstress leads to the best performance. - False

Explanation:

Hyperstress has also known as Hypertension is a Disease caused when your Blood Pressure (BP) goes high above the normal BP which is (180 "mm of hg")/(120 "mm of hg") if this happens then you are most likely to experience depression, in which People cant Perform to their max limits instead they lose all their hopes of living getting suicidal thoughts etc!

## Hypostress is a bliss.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Hypostress is a bliss. - False

Explanation:

Every people having there own and personal stress. but they never try to do showoff. Hypostress, which means the person who gets bored constantly, is not a bliss.

## Hyperstress leads to panic and exaggerated responses.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Hyperstress leads to panic and exaggerated responses. - True

Explanation:

Due to hyperstress, a person may experience panic attacks and may engage in exaggerated reactions like throwing temper tantrums. It leads to frustration or agitation.

## Conflict of motives is an internal stressor.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Conflict of motives is an internal stressor. - True

Explanation:

When an adolescent has more than one goal to choose, he experiences Conflict of motives. If he finds it difficult to resolve, he experiences stress. Conflict is a Latin word that means ‘striking two things at the same time’. Conflict of motives refers to the clash between two or more equally strong and incompatible motives occurring at the same time that compels an individual to make a choice.

## Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Approach-Avoidance conflict is extremely difficult to resolve. - True

Explanation:

A teenager likes to eat pastries, cakes, pizza but she doesn’t want to gain weight. She is experiencing approach-avoidance conflict. This type of conflict is very difficult to resolve as an individual is attracted and repelled by the same goal. There is only one goal and it has both positive as well as a negative value. This type of conflict is most difficult to resolve as an individual doesn’t have any choice.

## Compromise is Emotion focused coping strategy.

OPTIONS

• True

• False

SOLUTION

Compromise is Emotion focused coping strategy. - False

Explanation:

Compromise is involved in Problem focused coping. Problem focused coping is also known as a direct way of reducing the stressors or a direct way of resolving conflict. When an individual focuses her efforts on her problem/conflict, she is using a direct way of resolving conflict. Here she accepts the reality as it is and tries to solve the problem.

# Identify the odd item from the following.

OPTIONS

• Unchallenging job

• unemployment

• leisure

• lack of purposeful activity

OPTIONS

• Eustress

• hyperstress

• frustration

• distress

• hypostress

OPTIONS

• Attack

• Withdrawal

• Defense mechanism

• Compromise

OPTIONS

• Withdrawal

• Projection

• Sublimation

• Rationalization

• Displacement

# Match the following pairs.

## f) Leisure

SOLUTION

 Column A Column B 1. Two negative goals c) Avoidance-avoidance conflict 2. Problem focused coping d) Direct way of coping with stress 3. Vacation after sufficient work f) Leisure 4. Lack of challenging work b) Hypostress 5. Emotion focused coping a) Defense mechanism

# Answer the following questions in 35-40 words.

## What are the ill effects of distress?

SOLUTION

Distress is a negative type of stress.

It may be -

1. Acute Distress, i.e., intense, short-term negative stress

2. Chronic distress, i.e., long-lasting, recurrent negative stress.

While experiencing distress, our body is flooded with emergency response hormones such as Adrenaline and Cortisol. Adrenaline increases heart rate elevates blood pressure and boosts energy supply. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, increases sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhances the brain's use of glucose, and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues. Other ill effects include the inability to concentrate, headaches, fatigue, insomnia, aggression, depression, etc.

## Explain the relationship between level of stress and performance with the help of appropriate diagrams.

SOLUTION

When stress exceeds a limit or if it is very less it will deteriorate the performance. Only under moderate stress can we achieve optimum performance. This phenomenon can be explained with the help of a diagram.

Explain the internal and external stressors with examples.

SOLUTION

Stressors are any chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, or event that causes stress to the person. The individual considers it to be demanding, challenging, threatening, or harmful.

The types of stressors are internal stressors and external stressors.

• Internal stressors are within the individual, e.g., hunger or fatigue, or illness.

• External stressors result from the outside environment, e.g., environmental conditions like pollution, crowding. This results in frustration.

## What are the effects of hypostress?

SOLUTION

Stress is of two kinds - Hypostress and Hypertress. Hypostress is caused when a person has nothing to do at all. It is an insufficient amount of stress. When people have nothing to do, they get bored and if this feeling persists for a long time, it results in hypostress. Usually, people with hypostress are working in unchallenging jobs, due to which they become demotivated, unenthusiastic, and restless. Hypostress may be due to work underload.

## Why is the Approach-Avoidance conflict the most difficult to resolve?

SOLUTION

In approach-avoidance conflict to the individual is faced with a goal that has both positive and negative values. So he is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal. It is the most difficult conflict to resolve. for e.g., Samir wants to take up a job as the salary is excellent but the position doesn't have job security.

In such a situation three possible reactions may occur -

1. Give importance to the positive value and choose that goal.

2. Give importance to the negative aspect.

3. Avoid the goal altogether. The person has to accept the consequences of his/her choice.

## Eustress - Distress

SOLUTION

Eustress is positive stress which has a beneficial effect on motivation, performance, and emotional well-being. The body is flooded with Dopamine and Oxytocin.

Distress is negative stress where the body is flooded with emergency response hormones like Cortisol and Adrenaline.

There are two kinds of distress -

1. Acute distress - intense, short term negative stress.

2. Chronic distress - long-lasting, recurrent negative stress.

Eustress makes the person inspired, determined, energized, and 'ready to go'. In distress, the person shows ill effects like headaches, ulcers, fatigue, irritability, depression, increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure. The brain's use of glucose is enhanced.

## Hypostress - Hyperstress

SOLUTION

Hypostress refers to an insufficient amount of stress which leads to under-stimulation and the person gets bored, restless, and demotivated.

Hyperstress refers to high levels of stress which may lead to panic attacks, frustration, or exaggerated reactions.

In the case of both hypostress and hyperstress, the performance of the person shows deterioration. In hypostress, the individual feels a lack of challenge and enthusiasm. In hyperstress, as the stress levels are very high, the person feels anxiety, distress and may behave in an overwhelmed, dysfunctional manner.

## Emotion focused coping - Problem focused coping

SOLUTION

In problem focused coping, the person tries to deal with the conflict/problem by recognizing the problem, accepting the reality, and trying to solve the problem directly, by focusing on the task. It is the better way of dealing with the problem as it targets the cause of the stress in practical ways. It makes use of techniques like Attack, Withdrawal, and Compromise. It helps the individual to face the problem and resolve it.

In emotion focused coping, the person focuses on reducing negative emotional responses that occur due to exposure to stressors. He/she tries to ward off negative emotions by indulging in meditation or creative pursuits or by making use of defense mechanisms. This is the less preferred way of coping with stress.

## Attack - Withdrawal

SOLUTION

Attack and withdrawal are practical ways of problem focused means of coping with stress. In Attack, the person directly tries to deal with the problem using available resources. In Withdrawal, the person retreats/moves away, either mentally or physically from the situation. E.g., Nishant finds Maths very difficult. If he chooses to attend tuitions, practice many sums for better performance, he employs the method of Attack but if he just gives up on Maths and tries for a change of subject he is using Withdrawal.

## Compromise - Withdrawal

SOLUTION

Both Compromise and Withdrawal are ways of problem focused on coping with stress. In Withdrawal, the person tries to withdraw/retreat from the situation either physically or mentally. In Compromise, the person shows flexibility and modifies the goal or tries to improve upon his/her own resources to deal with the situation. Compromise is the best strategy for coping with stress.

## Projection - Rationalization

SOLUTION

Both projection and rationalization are defense Mechanisms which aim to protect the ego from disintegration. In projection, the person attributes (projects) his/her own thoughts, motives, and feelings onto another person. For e.g., Snehal has negative emotions, towards her husband's family, she remarks that they do not like or appreciate her.

In rationalization, the person attempts to give excuses for his/her failure or why some goal was not worth attaining. For e.g., Ashish was unsuccessful in his attempt to clear IIT - JEE exam. He now says that engineering as a profession has lost its value.

# Short notes

## What are the possible consequences of Mehul is sufficiently prepared for his exams but feels tremendously stressed?

SOLUTION

Moderate stress leads to optimum performance. In spite of being sufficiently prepared for the exam, Mehul feels greatly stressed. He will panic, be unable to concentrate and think clearly, and may even forget or go blank while writing the exam papers.

## What are the possible consequences of Sujata has nothing to do as her husband is a multimillionaire, nor does she have any hobby?

SOLUTION

Sujata will experience hypostress as she has nothing to do at home. As she has no hobby as well, she will feel bored, unchallenged, and demotivated.

## What are the possible consequences of Kalpesh sets his goals similar to his top ranker brother, without considering his ability?

SOLUTION

Kalpesh is not being realistic about his ability as compared to that of his brother. He admires his brother's intelligence and achievements and probably identifies with him and wants to model himself on his brother. He fails to realize that such behaviour will only result in loss of identity frustration for him and even failure.

## What are the possible consequences of Mohsin resorts to blame others every time he fails?

SOLUTION

Mohsin refuses to accept the harsh reality of failure. He is using the defense mechanism of projection, i.e., blaming others for his own failures. He is indulging in escapist behaviour as he is trying to shift the cause of failure from his own incompetencies/lack of effort on to others.

# Identify the defense mechanism used in the following example.

## Rahul who is interested in football was not selected for the college football team. He says he never wanted to be a part of the college football team.

SOLUTION

Rationalization - Rahul is giving excuses for his failure to make it to the football team. It is a 'sour grapes' situation.

## Vipasha comes from extremely poor family. She sleeps into imagining herself as driving her own car.

SOLUTION

Daydreaming - Vipasha is using fantasy to escape the reality of her poverty.

## Arnav got scolding from his teacher and he could not answer back. After coming home he started beating his younger brother for no reason.

SOLUTION

Displacement - Arnav is displacing his anger from the actual source (his teacher) to his brother (less powerful target).

## Ajay loved a girl who turned down his proposal. Later he became a successful composer.

SOLUTION

Sublimation - Ajay has diverted his pain at being rejected into his music and creativity.

## Rashmi has got promotion in her company and so has to go abroad. She wants to take this opportunity but at the same time, she is not willing to leave her parents.

SOLUTION

Approach-Avoidance Conflict (One goal having both positive and negative values).

## Yogesh has got selected by two reputed companies at the same time and both are his dream offers.

SOLUTION

Approach-Approach Conflict (Two positive goals).

## Julius doesn’t want to go for a wedding ceremony with his family as it’s too boring there but doesn’t want to stay alone at the same time.

SOLUTION

Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict (Two negative goals).

## Shanaya is very conscious about her figure, but she is also very tempted to eat sweets.

SOLUTION

Approach-Avoidance Conflict (One goal having both positive and negative values).

## Vishal has got invitation from his school friends for reunion party on the same day as his fresher’s party in his college.

SOLUTION

Approach-Approach Conflict (Two positive goals).

# Write a short note in 35-40 words.

## Types of stress

SOLUTION

The word stress is derived from the Latin word 'Stringi' which means 'to be drawn tight'. According to Richard Lazarus 'stress is a feeling experienced when an individual feels that the demands exceed the personal and social resource that he/she is able to mobilize.'

The types of stress are -

1. Hypostress - It refers to an insufficient amount of stress which leads to under-stimulation and the person gets bored, restless, and demotivated. It is different from leisure (time for relaxation after period of work).

2. Hyperstress - It refers to high levels of stress which leads to panic attacks, frustration, or exaggerated reactions.

3. Eustress (good stress) - It is positive stress which has a beneficial effect on motivation, performance, and emotional well-being. The body is flooded with Dopamine and Oxytocin.

4. Distress - It is negative stress where the body is flooded with emergency response hormones like Cortisol and Adrenaline.
The two kinds of distress are:

• Acute distress - intense, short term negative stress, e.g., news of the death of a relative.

• Chronic distress - long lasting, recurrent negative stress, e.g., Mina suffers from thalassemia.

## Relationship between stress level and performance

SOLUTION

Everybody deals with stress in his own way depending upon his genetic predisposition and environmental conditions. Stress works just like a key-operated toy. If the key is wound too much, the arrangement would break. At the same time, if it is wound too less, the toy won't work as it should. Similarly when stress exceeds a limit or if it is very less it will deteriorate the performance. Only under moderate stress, we can achieve optimum performance. This phenomenon can be explained with the help of the following diagram.

## Direct ways to cope up with stress

SOLUTION

Direct ways to cope up with stress are called problem focused coping techniques. The person focuses efforts on the problem using direct ways of resolving the problem. It involves attack, withdrawal, or compromise, for e.g., Soni has come to know that her friend Ronita is talking ill about her to others. She may verbally confront Ronita and get into an argument (attack) or she may stop talking to/interacting with Ronita (withdrawal) or she may check with some honest friends if Ronita is really bad-mouthing her and if yes, then why? Then, she in the presence of friends try to sort out the matter (compromise).

## Defense mechanisms

SOLUTION

According to Sigmund Freud, most of human behaviour reflects an attempt to deal with or to escape from anxiety. Defense Mechanisms are unconscious strategies used to protect the Ego from disintegration due to anxiety or harsh reality. They act as a face-saving device or shock absorber and distort reality. However, excessive use of defense mechanisms should be avoided as it leads to habitual escaping from reality and indulgence in falsehoods about one's self.

The commonly used defense mechanisms are:

1. Repression

2. Displacement

3. Projection

4. Sublimation

5. Identification

6. Daydreaming (fantasy)

7. Rationalization

# Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.

## Give the definition of stress and explain different types of stress.

SOLUTION

The word stress is derived from the Latin word 'Stringi' which means 'to be drawn tight'. According to Richard Lazarus 'stress is a feeling experienced when an individual feels that the demands exceed the personal and social resource that he/she is able to mobilize.'

The types of stress are -

1. Hypostress - It refers to an insufficient amount of stress which leads to under-stimulation and the person gets bored, restless, and demotivated. It is different from leisure (time for relaxation after the period of work).

2. Hyperstress - It refers to high levels of stress which leads to panic attacks, frustration, or exaggerated reactions.

3. Eustress (good stress) - It is positive stress which has a beneficial effect on motivation, performance, and emotional well-being. The body is flooded with Dopamine and Oxytocin.

4. Distress - It is negative stress where the body is flooded with emergency response hormones like Cortisol and Adrenaline.
The two kinds of distress are:

• Acute distress - intense, short term negative stress, e.g., news of the death of a relative.

• Chronic distress - long lasting, recurrent negative stress, e.g., Mina suffers from thalassemia.

## What is meant by conflict of motives?

SOLUTION

Conflict is a Latin word which means 'striking two things at the same time'. A conflict of motives refers to a clash between two or more motives, competing with each other for satisfaction at the same time. Kurt Lewin described the conflict in terms of the opposite tendencies of approach and avoidance.

## Explain the different types of conflicts with examples. Illustrate your answer with appropriate figures.

SOLUTION

The main conflicts are Approach-Approach, Avoidance-Avoidance, Approach-Avoidance, Double Approach-Avoidance conflict.

1. Approach-Approach Conflict - Approach-approach conflict is between two positive goals. The person is equally attracted to both the goals and must make a choice. He/She may be happy with the choice made or experience some regret. For e.g., Sumit has to choose between going for a school trip or for a vacation with his family during the summer vacations.

2. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict - In the avoidance-avoidance conflict, the person is faced with two goals with negative values. Both the goals appear unattractive. He/She is repelled by both goals but must choose one of them. For e.g., Anju doesn't want to attend lectures as she finds them boring but she also doesn't want to appear on the attendance defaulter list.

3. Approach-Avoidance Conflict - In the approach-avoidance conflict, the individual is faced with a goal that has both positive and negative values. So he is both attracted to and repelled by the goal. It is the most difficult conflict to resolve. For e.g., Samir wants to take up a job as the salary is excellent but the post doesn't have job security.

4. Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict - In double approach-avoidance Conflict, the individual is faced with two goals each having positive and negative values. He/She must choose one goal, lose the other goal, and accept the negative values of the goal he/she has chosen. For e.g., Nisha wants to become a pilot but the cost is prohibiting. She can also become a beautician but it is a low paying, non-glamorous job.

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