Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 3: Self


Complete the following statements.



The Self concept begins to form when ____________.

OPTIONS

  • a one and half year old child recognizes her image in the mirror

  • an infant is able to distinguish his body from the rest in his surrounding.

  • a child recognizes his/herself as a boy or a girl



The Self concept begins to form when ____________.

OPTIONS

  • a one and half year old child recognizes her image in the mirror

  • an infant is able to distinguish his body from the rest in his surrounding.

  • a child recognizes his/herself as a boy or a girl



Self esteem is a sense of self worth that depends upon ______.

OPTIONS

  • Actual performance of an individual

  • Self perception of one’s own performance

  • Other people’s perception of one’s performance



Ability to monitor our actions and feelings, is called ______.

OPTIONS

  • Self regulation

  • Self awareness

  • Self efficacy



State whether the following statement is True or False and give the reason for your answer.

Congruence between the Real Self and Ideal Self is an indicator of good mental health.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Congruence between the Real Self and Ideal Self is an indicator of good mental health. - True

Explanation:

  1. Congruence between the real self and the ideal self leads to a healthy thought process.

  2. The conflict between the two would lead to a lack of self-worth, self-deprecation, constant feeling of not being good enough, self-hatred, self-sabotage and etc.

  3. It can become a cause of an unhealthy living lifestyle.

  4. On the other hand, this conflict can also motivate the other to become the ideal self but that is borderline healthy due to the ways one might opt.


Namrata aspires to become a pilot but she should not be encouraged because one must choose a profession appropriate to their gender.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Namrata aspires to become a pilot but she should not be encouraged because one must choose a profession appropriate to their gender. - False

Explanation:

Everyone is the same there should not be any discrimination on the basis of gender while choosing a profession because everyone has the right to choose their profession.



People with a high self esteem are not necessarily the ones who are always successful.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

People with a high self esteem are not necessarily the ones who are always successful. - True

Explanation:

  1. Confidence and proud should be a human being but overconfidence and proudness gain nothing for the human being.

  2. So, it is not necessary for a successful person with overconfidence.

  3. No person has become successful by overconfidence.



Accepting mistakes helps improving self esteem.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Accepting mistakes helps improving self esteem. - True

Explanation:

  1. Yes, it is true because when we don't know and not willing to accept our mistakes then we would not be able to gain self esteem.

  2. Accepting mistakes makes you strong enough to face any problem.

  3. Accepting mistakes makes you feel light without any burden of done any mistake.



Self awareness is a necessary attribute to have a healthy self concept.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Self awareness is a necessary attribute to have a healthy self concept. - True



To have a healthy self concept implies to be a highly capable person.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

To have a healthy self concept implies to be a highly capable person. - True


Identify the odd item from the following:



OPTIONS

  • Goal-orientation

  • Internal values

  • Feeling of superiority

  • Positivity


OPTIONS

  • Fear of risks

  • Fear of uncertainty

  • Self confidence

  • Impression management



OPTIONS

  • Self indulgence

  • Self awareness

  • Self efficacy

  • Self esteem



Match the following pairs.

Column A

Column B

1. Rentsch and Heffener model

a) A sense of self worth

2. Carl Rogers

b) Monitoring one’s own actions

3. Congruence between ideal and real self

c) Confidence in one’s own abilities to complete a task

4. Self esteem

d) Categories of self concept

5. Self regulation

e) Fully functioning person

6. Self efficacy

f) Good mental health



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

1. Rentsch and Heffener model

d) Categories of self concept

2. Carl Rogers

e) Fully functioning person

3. Congruence between ideal and real self

f) Good mental health

4. Self esteem

a) A sense of self worth

5. Self regulation

b) Monitoring one’s own actions

6. Self efficacy

c) Confidence in one’s own abilities to complete a task




Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words.



How do we develop a concept of our 'self' as we grow?


SOLUTION

Self concept is defined as the totality of perceptions each person has of himself. It is how a person perceives, thinks, and values himself and how he enhances or defends himself. It begins to form as an infant starts distinguishing his body from the rest of everything he sees. Gradually, he continues to identify his gender, talents, and abilities in childhood. The child also learns to hide certain things about himself. This hidden side of self includes thoughts, feelings, and desires of which others are unaware. This is his private self concept. During adolescence, they are able to think and understand other's points of view. They enter into the stage of objective self awareness.



Explain the sex-identity and sex-role as a part of the self concept.


SOLUTION

Gender role and gender identity are important aspects of self-concept. 'Gender identity' and 'Gender role' are two different concepts. Gender identity is a biological concept. It is the perception of oneself as male or female. The sex chromosome determines whether the child will be a boy (xy) or a girl (xx). 'Gender role' is an acquired attribute that is psycho-social in nature. Gender role is determined by the family atmosphere and cultural influences where the child learns through observation and imitation.



What are the ways in which we can achieve congruence between the Ideal self and the Real self?


SOLUTION

According to Rogers, every individual wishes to actualize himself. Mentally healthy persons have congruence between their experience and self-concept.

There are two important concepts related to this

  1. Real self (self image) - It is what the person actually is in reality. It is our inner personality

  2. Ideal self - It represents the ideal image developed by a person as he/she would like to be. It represents our dynamic ambitions and goals. If there is incongruence between the real self and the ideal self it leads to maladjustment. If the ideal self and real self are congruent, our self-concept is accurate.

We can achieve congruence between the real self and the ideal self in the following ways.

  1. set realistic goals and objectives

  2. have a practical assessment of our strengths and limitations

  3. have a sense of responsibility, and commitment to the set objectives

  4. be flexible in adjusting the set goals and learn from past mistakes.



Why is the congruence between the ideal self and the real self is very significant to enjoy psychological wellbeing?


SOLUTION

According to Rogers, every individual has a tendency to actualize himself. Mentally healthy individuals have congruence between their experience and their self concept. The real self is what we actually are. It is very important for psychological health. The ideal self is what we want to be. High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to a greater sense of self worth and healthy life. Lack of congruence between the real and the ideal self leads to maladjustment.


Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is different from the ideal self.

  • There is only a little overlap.

  • Here self-actualization will be difficult.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is similar to the ideal self.

  • There is more overlap.

  • This person can achieve self-actualization.

High congruence between the real self and ideal self leads to well-balanced individuals who can accept challenges in life, cope with grief, frustration, and failure be open to other people's views and needs.



What is meant by self esteem?


SOLUTION

Self esteem refers to the person's overall evaluation of his/her worth as a person, based on all positive and negative self perceptions. It is based on our appraisal of our potential, achievements, and failures. It is generally along a dimension e.g., good - bad, high - low. A person can have various levels of self esteem. According to Rosenberg, it is our attitude towards ourself. Persons with high self esteem exhibit goal commitment, a sense of responsibility, genuineness, and positivity.



Describe the characteristics of individuals with high self esteem.


SOLUTION

Self esteem refers to the person's overall evaluation of his/her worth as a person, based on all positive and negative self perceptions.


Characteristics of individuals with high self esteem are


high sense of responsibility

goal commitment

genuineness and forgiving

having internal values

positivity, self improvement.



What are the ways to improve one’s self esteem? Give example.


SOLUTION

The ways to improve one's self esteem is to eliminate negative self talk, recognize your strengths, and self worth, accept mistakes, and even rejection.

Example: Mr. Surendra Kumar came to Mumbai to make it big in Hindi films but couldn't succeed as an actor. He was rejected at many auditions, leading to anxiety and feelings of inferiority and negativity. However, he accepted this rejection, worked on his mistakes, recognized that his strength was the choreography. Today he is well known for the hit songs he has choreographed.


What are the characteristics of individuals with self efficacy? Give examples.


SOLUTION

Self efficacy refers to a person's belief in his/her ability to accomplish a task. Individuals with self efficacy show characteristics that include self confidence, accurate self evaluation, willingness to take risks, and a sense of accomplishment.

Example: P.V. Sindhu is India's no.1 badminton player and world women's champion (2019). During a lean patch in her career, she still had high self efficacy which involved accurate self evaluation and high self confidence that she could defeat anyone, leading to a sense of accomplishment.



What is self image?


SOLUTION

Self image is a personal view or mental picture that we have of ourselves. It is a collection of the strengths and weaknesses of an individual. Self image is dynamic and changing. A healthy self image involves learning to accept ourselves, avoid comparing ourselves to others, and being loved and accepted by others. Body image (how we feel about our physical attributes) is a part of self image and contributes to enhanced psychological adjustments.



What are the ways to regulate Self? Give examples.


SOLUTION

Self regulation refers to being able to control our thoughts, feelings, and actions so as to suit social norms. It involves monitoring our actions and reactions because we can predict or imagine the consequences. People may either focus on achieving positive outcomes or may try to prevent negative outcomes.

The Heatherton model identifies four psychological components that help a person to study socially connected

  1. be aware of our actions

  2. be able to predict other's reaction to it

  3. detect any kind of threat from others

  4. do something constructive to improve the situation.



Compare and contrast.

Ideal self - Real Self



SOLUTION

According to Rogers, every individual has a tendency to actualize himself. Mentally healthy persons have congruence between their experience and self-concept. There are two important concepts related to this

  1. Real self (self image) - lt is what the person actually is in reality. It is our inner personality

  2. Ideal self - It represents the ideal image developed by a person as he/she would like to be. It represents our dynamic ambitions and goals. If there is incongruence between the real self and the ideal self it leads to maladjustment. If the ideal self and real self are congruent, our self concept is accurate, leading to good adjustment.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is different from the ideal self.

  • There is only a little overlap.

  • Here self-actualization will be difficult.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is similar to the ideal self.

  • There is more overlap.

  • This person can achieve self-actualization.



Private Self - Objective Self Awareness


SOLUTION

During childhood, a private self-concept develops. The child learns that he/she can lie and keep secrets. They may create a make-believe world e.g., an imaginary friend whom only they can interact with. This is the hidden side of self (thoughts, feelings, desires, behaviours) of which parents, siblings, etc., are unaware. It is an often difficult stage in the development of the self concept.

In adolescence, the objective self awareness stage develops. The person becomes self conscious, cautious about behaviour, appearance, and social interactions. Peer groups and members of the opposite sex assume importance. The adolescent wants to become popular, attractive, and successful. Many individuals have a strong need for approval or acceptance and may just accept their group's manner of functioning.



People with High Self esteem - People with Low Self esteem


SOLUTION

People with high self esteem have a sense of responsibility, goal commitment is genuine, and forgiving have internal values, show positivity, and self improvement.

People with low self esteem have the feeling of unhappiness, anxiety, feeling of superiority or inferiority, show impatience with self or others have externally oriented goals, And exhibit negativity.



How will you deal with the following situations if it were you in those situations?

Grishma thinks she is extremely good-looking; which is not true in reality; she aspires to become a star model.



SOLUTION

Grishma has a distorted self image that she is extremely good-looking, hence her aspiration is to become a star model. However, in reality, she is plain looking. She needs to change her self image and to develop a healthy, accurate view of her physical looks. She must overcome irrational thinking, define achievable personal goals, and develop her strengths/positive qualities.



Harshad is avoiding places where he has to meet many people as he wears spectacles and he has got lot of pimples.


SOLUTION

Harshad has a negative self image. He seems to lack respect for himself and so he feels that others may also ridicule him. He avoids places where he has to interact with others. This shows that he lacks efficacy competencies i.e., has low self worth. He must stop his avoidance behaviour, develop social skills, and self confidence. He must be willing to become less conscious of what he considers as negative attributes. e.g., wearing spectacles.



Sushma is too short so she does not mix with others.


SOLUTION

Sushma is conscious of being short and therefore avoids mixing a round with others. She has a negative body image which leads to low self esteem, interpersonal anxiety, introverted behaviour, and maladjustment. She is comparing her height to that of others leading to her negative self image. She must be positive and realize that many persons of short height have been very successful for e.g., Sachin Tendulkar and Lal Bahadur Shastri.



Write a short note in 50-60 words.

Gender role



SOLUTION

Gender role is acquired i.e., determined by learning, training, observation, etc. It is psycho-social in nature and influenced by family, culture, media, etc. It differs from gender identity which is based on biological aspects of being male/female. Very often, in society, there exist gender stereotypes e.g., females must be passive, inclined towards housework, and cannot be assertive or career-oriented. Even, in matters of career and personal interests stereotypes and restrictions exist. However, today most cultures are opening up to new gender roles for e.g., both father and mother are equally involved in career and child-rearing.



Carl Rogers’ theory of Self


SOLUTION

According to Rogers, every individual has to actualize himself. Mentally healthy persons have congruence between their experience and self-concept.

There are two important concepts related to this

  1. Real self (self image) - It is what the person actually is in reality. It is our inner personality

  2. Ideal self - It represents the ideal image developed by a person as he/she would like to be. It represents our dynamic ambitions and goals.

If there is incongruence between the real self and the ideal self it leads to maladjustment. If the ideal self and real self are congruent, our self concept is accurate.

Self actualization refers to the motive to realize our full potential as we strive to be fully functioning individuals. A person with high self worth can tolerate failure and cope with challenges of life while someone with low self worth tends to avoid challenges and cannot tolerate distress.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is different from the ideal self.

  • There is only a little overlap.

  • Here self-actualization will be difficult.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is similar to the ideal self.

  • There is more overlap.

  • This person can achieve self-actualization.



Self Efficacy


SOLUTION

Self efficacy refers to a person's belief in their ability to perform a task or to accomplish a goal. It depends on the person's trust in his/her own competency. There are two factors related to it i.e., outcome expectancies (skills required to complete the goal) and efficacy expectancies (person's analysis about whether the person has those skills). Those with low self efficacy have fear of risks, fear of failure, etc., while those with high self efficacy have an accurate self evaluation and a sense of accomplishment.

Self efficacy can be improved by developing skills, accepting a suitable role model and following him/her regarding that particular activity, asking others to give specific and constructive feedback, reinforcing oneself, using verbal persuasion by a counsellor, learning various techniques to control arousal which lowers performance, for example, meditation, biofeedback, hypnosis, and relaxation.



Self Awareness


SOLUTION

Self awareness is a component of the self concept. Self awareness refers to the quality or trait that involves conscious awareness of one's thoughts, feelings, behaviours, and characteristics. It is the understanding that a person has a separate identity from others. According to Jean Piaget, self consciousness starts emerging between 15-24 months of age. The child can differentiate between something that belongs to him/her and what belongs to others.



Self Esteem


SOLUTION

Self esteem refers to the person's overall evaluation of his/her worth as a person, based on all positive and negative self perceptions. It is based on our appraisal of our potential, achievements, and failures. It is generally along a dimension e.g., good - bad, high - low. A person can have various levels of self esteem. According to Rosenberg, it is our attitude towards ourself.

Characteristics of a person with low self esteem are feeling of unhappiness, and anxiety, feeling of superiority or inferiority, impatience with self or others having externally oriented goals, and feelings of negativity.

Self esteem can be improved by eliminating negative self talk, recognizing your strengths, and self worth, accepting and improving mistakes, and accepting rejection.


Self Regulation


SOLUTION

Self regulation refers to being able to control our thoughts, feelings, and actions so as to suit social norms. (when we regulate ourself, we stop acting impulsively). It involves monitoring our actions and reactions because we can predict or imagine the consequences. When we regulate ourself, we stop acting impulsively. People may either focus on achieving positive outcomes (promotion regulatory focus) or may try to prevent negative outcomes (prevention regulatory focus).

The Heatherton model identifies four psychological components that help a person to study socially connected

  • be aware of our actions

  • be able to predict other's reaction to it

  • detect any kind of threat from others

  • do something constructive to improve the situation.



Answer the following questions in 150-200 words.



Give a detailed account of development of an individual’s Self concept through the stages of life.


SOLUTION

Self concept is defined as the totality of perceptions that each person has of himself/herself. It is an organized set of perceptions that we hold about our abilities which develops from social interactions and experiences. It is the totality of complex, organized, and dynamic systems of learned beliefs, attitudes, and opinions that each person holds to be true about his or her personal existence. The overall organization of self concept is common for all.

Till the age of 6 months, the child is unaware of himself. He then develops the distinction between 'me' and 'what is not me'. By 18 months, face recognition in the mirror occurs. The child begins using personal pronouns and indulges in pretend play. By 2 years of age, the child begins to develop self esteem and becomes aware of expectations of good or bad behaviour. Between ages 3-4, self concept is based on recognizing themselves and others as boys/girls as well as on their talents. Ages 5-6 are the beginning of social comparison. Private self concept (thoughts, feelings that others are unaware of) also develops. In adolescence, there is the final unfolding of self concept. It involves perspective-taking i.e., to understand the point of view of others. Adolescents may become self conscious and enter the stage of objective self awareness, where they want to become attractive and popular.



Explain the theory of Self as proposed by Carl Rogers.


SOLUTION

According to Rogers, every individual has to actualize himself. Mentally healthy persons have congruence between their experience and self-concept.

There are two important concepts related to this

  1. Real self (self image) - It is what the person actually is in reality. It is our inner personality

  2. Ideal self - It represents the ideal image developed by a person as he/she would like to be. It represents our dynamic ambitions and goals.

If there is incongruence between the real self and the ideal self it leads to maladjustment. If the ideal self and real self are congruent, our self concept is accurate.

Self actualization refers to the motive to realize our full potential as we strive to be fully functioning individuals. A person with high self worth can tolerate failure and cope with challenges of life while someone with low self worth tends to avoid challenges and cannot tolerate distress.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is different from the ideal self.

  • There is only a little overlap.

  • Here self-actualization will be difficult.

Chapter 3 - Self Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  • The self-image is similar to the ideal self.

  • There is more overlap.

  • This person can achieve self-actualization.



Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

The answers for the Balbharati books are the best study material for students. These Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Story of Psychology

 • Chapter 2: Branches of Psychology

 • Chapter 3: Self

 • Chapter 4: Human Development

 • Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me

 • Chapter 6: Stress

 • Chapter 7: Nervous System

 • Chapter 8: Memory


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