Chapter 8 - Memory Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 8: Memory


Complete the following statements.


One of the important processes for storage of information in the LTM is ________

OPTIONS

  • Perception

  • Elaborative rehearsal

  • Encoding



Memory is a/an __________

OPTIONS

  • Activity

  • Process

  • Performance



___________ memory has the shortest duration.

OPTIONS

  • Sensory

  • Short Term

  • Long Term



___________ memory is also known as Working Memory.

OPTIONS

  • Long Term

  • Accidental

  • Short Term



__________ memory has unlimited capacity.

OPTIONS

  • Sensory

  • Short Term

  • Long Term



The span of Short Term Memory is ________

OPTIONS

  • 5+/-2

  • 7+/-2

  • 9+/-2



State whether the following statement is True or False. If False, correct them. If True, explain why.

Our sense organs also have memory.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Our sense organs also have memory. - True

Explanation:

During every moment of an organism's life, its eyes, ears, and other sensory organs are taking in information and relaying it to the nervous system for processing. Our sensory memory store retains this information for a few moments.



Short term memory has an unlimited capacity.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Short term memory has an unlimited capacity. - False

Explanation:

When short-term memories are not rehearsed or actively maintained, they last mere seconds. Short term memory is limited. It is commonly suggested that short term memory can hold seven plus or minus two items.



Conscious memory of facts and events is called explicit memory.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Conscious memory of facts and events is called explicit memory. - True

Explanation:

Conscious memories of facts and events are called as explicit memory. It is also known as Declarative memory.



Implicit memory is memory of skills.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

Implicit memory is memory of skills. - True

Explanation:

It is also known as procedural memory. Procedural memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how we do things, regarding the use of objects or movements of the body, such as tying a shoelace, playing harmonium, or riding a bicycle.



When we memorise meanings, concepts and principles, it is called episodic memory.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

When we memorise meanings, concepts and principles, it is called episodic memory. - False

Explanation:

Episodic memory is a memory of experiences and specific events which we recall step by step where we can reconstruct the actual events. It is the memory of autobiographical events with times, places, and associated emotions.



The method of relearning is also known as saving method.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

The method of relearning is also known as saving method. - True

Explanation:

This method is also known as saving method. The same material is learned by the same subject up to the same learning criterion on two different occasions separated by some time interval.



The most vivid memory is flashbulb memory.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

The most vivid memory is flashbulb memory. - True

Explanation:

Flashbulb memories are vivid memories of what we were doing at the time of an emotion-provoking event because they seem to be preserved in autobiographical memory in considerable detail, almost like a photograph. Flashbulb memories illustrate a more general phenomenon about memory. Exceptional memories are easily retrieved.



Very often forgetting is due to unconscious processes like repression.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False


SOLUTION

Very often forgetting is due to unconscious processes like repression. - True

Explanation:

Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic model states that we subconsciously push unwanted thoughts and memories into our unconsciousness. Person thinks that such repressed memories are completely forgotten. For example, a girl who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood may completely forget about it but she may have difficulty while forming romantic relationship.



Identify the odd item from the following.

OPTIONS

  • Encoding

  • storage

  • Tip of the tongue (TOT)

  • retrieval



OPTIONS

  • Keyword method

  • Method of Loci

  • Chunking

  • Rote learning

  • First letter technique



OPTIONS

  • Sensory register

  • STM

  • Flashbulb memory

  • LTM



OPTIONS

  • Recall

  • Recognition

  • Relearning

  • Trace decay



Match the following pairs.

Column A

Column B

1) A technique to improve memory

a. Short Term Memory

2) The most vivid memory

b. Declarative Memory

3) Working memory

c. Implicit Memory

4) Most organized memory

d. Flashbulb Memory

5) Playing a harmonium after a long time

e. Method of Loci

6) Writing an essay on perceptual process

f. LTM

 

g. recall method

 

h. relearning method



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

1) A technique to improve memory

e. Method of Loci

2) The most vivid memory

d. Flashbulb Memory

3) Working memory

a. Short Term Memory

4) Most organized memory

f. LTM

5) Playing a harmonium after a long time

c. Implicit Memory

6) Writing an essay on perceptual process

b. Declarative Memory



Answer the following questions in around 35-40 words.



Explain any one example of Flashbulb memory from your life.


SOLUTION

One type of autobiographical memory is 'flashbulb memory' i.e., detailed, vivid 'snapshots' of an important (mostly traumatic) event in a person's life.

I was studying along with a few friends for my first unit test when we heard the news of serial bomb blasts in the city. I can still recall every detail of the incident, our reactions to it, etc. as it occurred very near to my place and a few known persons were injured in the blasts.



Explain the model of working memory proposed by Baddeley.


SOLUTION

Baddeley has proposed the Working Memory Model - 

Chapter 8 - Memory Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

  1. Central Executive - It is responsible for the co-ordination of its subsystems and selection of storage strategies for decision making words/numbers.

  2. Phonological loop - It is responsible for verbal information. It includes the acoustic store and the articulatory loop.

  3. Episodic buffer - It includes information that is not covered by the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad.

  4. Visuo-spatial sketchpad - It concentrates on visual and spatial information.



Explain the Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon with an example.


SOLUTION

Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomena refers to our temporary inability to recall some information even though we know that it is stored in our memory. It is an experience that we are about to remember something but fail to do so at the appropriate time.

For e.g., During an exam, Sonu is unable to retrieve the answer of “Who is associated with classical conditioning?” even though he had learned the topic well. He tries other similar names or names starting with the same letter as the answer i.e., Pavlov.



Give an example of Episodic memory.


SOLUTION

Episodic memory is the memory of specific events or experiences and their associated emotions. It may be autobiographical memory i.e., the recollection of events and experiences from one's life. For e.g., Anuj had visited the North-Eastern states of Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, etc., on a school trip when he was in Std VIII. He remembers all the incidents from that trip even after three years.


What is motivated forgetting?


SOLUTION

People may consciously or unconsciously forget unwanted memories. The two levels of motivated forgetting are repression and thought suppression

  1. Repression - According to Sigmund Freud, we subconsciously push unwanted or painful memories into the unconscious for e.g., a boy who was kidnapped as an infant, may forget it, but have difficulty in trusting others throughout life.

  2. Thought suppression - It is a conscious effort to forget about painful experiences of life for e.g., a person who was falsely implicated in a criminal case may refuse to talk about it.



Compare and contrast.

STM - LTM



SOLUTION

According to the Information Processing Model of Memory, the main stages of memory are Sensory memory, Short Term Memory (STM), and Long Term Memory (LTM).

Information enters the STM from the sensory information store by selective attention. It is maintained thereby maintenance rehearsal and continued attention. STM has a storage capacity of 7 +/− 2 (5 − 9) items. It can hold information for 15-30 seconds. STM is also called primary memory or working memory. Material from the STM is lost due to decay, interference, etc.

Information enters the LTM from the STM through rehearsal. It is maintained thereby elaborative rehearsal which makes it meaningful and associates it with existing information. LTM is an organized system and a storehouse of encoded experiences. It has an almost unlimited capacity and is almost permanent. Information can be lost through interference, trace decay, and retrieval failure. Information from LTM is brought back to the working memory during retrieval.



Implicit Memory - Explicit Memory


SOLUTION

Implicit memory and Explicit memory are subsystems of Long Term Memory. Implicit memory is also called non-declarative or procedural memory. It is developed through practice and repetition. It is the unconscious memory of skills, habits, and simple conditioned responses. It is less prone to forgetting even in most cases of amnesia. Explicit memory is also known as declarative memory. It holds conscious memories of facts and life events or experiences. It includes episodic memory which is the memory of the personal life experiences of a person and it's associated emotions. i.e. autobiographical memories like flashbulb memory. Explicit memory also includes semantic memory i.e., the structured record of facts, ideas, grammar, and rules of logic.



Semantic memory - Episodic memory


SOLUTION

Semantic memory and Episodic memory are types of declarative (explicit) memory. Semantic memory is a more structured record of knowledge, facts, concepts, rules of logic and grammar, etc. It is considered to be very stable as information is stored in a highly organized form from general to specific categories. Complex cognitive activities like perception, language, etc., are possible due to semantic memory. Episodic memory stores information about personal life experiences or specific events. It does not have a logical organization and is more susceptible to forgetting. It is important in social interactions and communications. Both types of memory are important for the normal functioning of a person.



Storage failure - Retrieval failure


SOLUTION

Encoding Storage and Retrieval are the basic processes in memory. Storage is essential so that the stored material can be used in the future. Retrieval means recalling stored information for actual use. Storage failure occurs due to improper encoding and storage capacity. For e.g., if the matter is not rehearsed it will not go from the STM store to the LTM. Retrieval failure is a primary cause of forgetting and may occur due to storage failure, absence of appropriate retrieval cues, or too much emotional pressure to recall items.


Recall method - Recognition method




SOLUTION

Recall is retrieval of information from the LTM in the absence of cues. It involves remembering something that requires direct information from memory for e.g., Fill in the blanks type of questions. Recognition involves identifying some previously learnt or familiar material. Memory cues are already present and only need to be accurately recognized for e.g., Match the columns questions. Recognition thus tends to be easier than recall.



What will you do if you have to prepare a long speech covering all the activities in your college and present at the annual function?




SOLUTION

I will make a summary of the main points covering all the major activities and keep it handy with me in case I miss out on certain points at the function. This will provide retrieval cues I will also prepare the detailed speech in a sequential context so that it is easier to recollect. I will go over the speech a number of times for better retention. Since it is a long speech I will memorize it in parts using memory techniques like chunking and visualization. I will also try to take some rest after the final rehearsal so as to minimize interference. Most importantly, I will not stress out so that the retrieval process is easier and more efficient.



What will you do if how will you apply 'POWER’ to prepare for the final exam of Psychology?


SOLUTION

The final exam of Psychology would involve the entire portion. I will first revise what I have already learned for previous tests or exams so that retroactive interference is avoided. I will employ the POWER method.

  • Prepare - I will set the objectives of study i.e., which chapter to begin learning, which chapters to merely revise, and go over all the material adequately.

  • Organize - I will set a timeline for study, for solving questions, and for revision.

  • Work - I will study according to the time table using various memory technique I will also ensure that all distractions are eliminated.

  • Evaluate - I will write down the answers and try to solve as many question papers as possible.

  • Rethink - I will rehearse, revise and review what I have learnt to avoid trace decay from occurring.



Write a short note.

Characteristics of Memory



SOLUTION

According to Tulving, 'memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use that information in the present'. Memory is the mental system involved in the receiving storage and subsequent retrieval of information.

The characteristics of memory are:

  1. The positive aspect of memory is retention and the negative aspect of memory is forgetting.

  2. There are three basic processes in memory i.e., encoding, storage, and retrieval.

  3. The three subsystems of memory are sensory memory, short term, and long term memory.

  4. The hippocampus plays an important role in the storage of memory.


Techniques to improve memory


SOLUTION

According to Tulving, 'memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use that information in the present'. Memory is the mental system involved in the receiving storage and subsequent retrieval of information.

  1. Keyword Method - Any two different pieces of information can be linked together, using this method. It is especially effective in learning foreign languages, etc. For e.g., In Japanese 'Ki' means 'tree'. So we can remember it as 'a key on the tree'.

  2. Encoding Specificity - Encoding Specificity states that recall improves if the same cues that were present during learning are also present at recall. for e.g., If a multiple choice type of question in the exam is the same as the question given at the end of the lesson.

  3. Method of Loci - It is creating an imaginary route or sequential location of things to be remembered. For e.g., list of household items to be bought on the way home.

  4. Use of mnemonic devices - These are memory tools which help us to remember the information.
    It may include -
    (a) First letter technique (acronyms) e.g., BODMAS (sequence of mathematical operations)
    (b) Chunking i.e., large information is stored as small chunks e.g., phone nos. 999-123-4567
    (c) Visualization e.g., imagining the face of a friend to remember a meeting scheduled with him/her.

  5. Rehearsal - Practice, relearning, and rehearsal help in better retention of material. If the matter is large or difficult then it is better to learn it in parts, revise it once or twice and then move on to the next section. Finally, a revision of the full topic must be done.

  6. Minimizing interference - We must take breaks between learning and avoid interference from intervening activities due to retroactive or proactive interference.

  7. Power method - This means Prepare, Organize, Work, Evaluate, and Rethink.
    a. Prepare - It involves setting goals and guidelines for the study of that topic.
    b. Organize - Plan a schedule for better time management and motivation e.g., difficult, technical subjects should be learned when the mind is fresh and have more time for it.
    c. Work - It involves the dedicated effort to a chieve the goal. We can associate new material with already learnt material or use techniques like acronyms/chunking, etc.
    d. Evaluate - This can be done by solving questions and trying to find out the amount of retention.
    e. Rethink - It involves reviewing/revising the learned material.



Motivated forgetting


SOLUTION

People may consciously or unconsciously forget unwanted memories. The two levels of motivated forgetting are repression and thought suppression.

  1. Repression - According to Sigmund Freud, we subconsciously push unwanted or painful memories into the unconscious for e.g., a boy who was kidnapped as an infant, may forget it. but have difficulty in trusting others throughout life.

  2. Thought suppression - It is a conscious effort to forget about painful experiences of life for e.g., a person who was falsely implicated in a criminal case may refuse to talk about it.



Causes of forgetting


SOLUTION

Forgetting refers to the failure to retain what has been learnt. Forgetting is the loss, either permanent or temporary of the ability to recall or recognize something that was learnt earlier. According to Hermann Ebbinghaus. Most rapid forgetting occurred within the first hour after learning. After one day, generally, only 30% of the material can be recalled.

The causes of forgetting are:

  1. Trace decay - Learning leaves a trace in the brain. If these memory traces are not used for a long time, then they begin to fade/decay and sometimes disappear altogether leading to forgetting.

  2. Trace distortion - Some researchers believe that memory traces do not decay but get distorted. Hence, interpretation plays a major role in remembering.

  3. Interference - This view explains that we forget because new material interferes with the retrieval of previously learnt information or old memories inhibit retention of new material.
    The two types of interference are proactive interference and retroactive interference
    (a) Retroactive interference (backward acting interference) - It is the partial or complete forgetting of previously learned material due to the interference of new material. For e.g., At a party, Suman is introduced to many new people. By the end of the party, she has forgotten the names of many to whom she was first introduced.
    (b) Proactive interference (forward acting interference) - It is partial or complete forgetting of newly learnt material due to interference by previously learnt material. for e.g., if a child is habituated to mispronouncing a word (old learning) and in spite of a teacher telling him the correct pronunciation (new material) he will still say the word as before.

Chapter 8 - Memory Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


  1. Motivated forgetting - People may consciously or unconsciously forget unwanted memories. The two levels of motivated forgetting are repression and thought suppression
    (a) Repression - According to Sigmund Freud, we subconsciously push unwanted or painful memories into the unconscious for e.g., a boy who was kidnapped as an infant, may forget it, but have difficulty in trusting others throughout life.
    (b) Thought suppression - It is a conscious effort to forget about painful experiences of life for e.g., a person who was falsely implicated in a criminal case may refuse to talk about it.

  2. Retrieval failure - The person knows something but cannot remember it when needed. This occurs due
    (i) to the inadequate encoding of material
    (ii) improper storage
    (iii) incorrect retrieval cues
    (iv) the person is under emotional pressure at that time.



Answer the following question in 150 to 200 words.



Explain the process of human memory in detail.


SOLUTION

According to Tulving, 'memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use that information in the present'. Memory is the mental system involved in the receiving, storage, and subsequent retrieval of information.

The basic processes in memory are Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval.

Chapter 8 - Memory Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


  • Acquisition - It is the process of acquiring information through our sense organs. It is the process by which information is recorded in an usable form i.e. suitable symbols like pictures, figures, etc.

  • Storage - The information that is encoded is preserved over a period of time.

  • Retrieval - It is the process by which stored information is brought back for current use. The recall of stored material for actual use is called retrieval.



Explain the theories of forgetting in detail.


SOLUTION

Forgetting refers to the failure to retain what has been learnt. Forgetting is the loss, either permanent or temporary of the ability to recall or recognize something that was learnt earlier. According to Hermann Ebbinghaus. Most rapid forgetting occurred within the first hour after learning. After one day, generally, only 30% of the material can be recalled.

The causes of forgetting are:

  1. Trace decay - Learning leaves a trace in the brain. If these memory traces are not used for a long time, then they begin to fade/decay and sometimes disappear altogether leading to forgetting.

  2. Trace distortion - Some researchers believe that memory traces do not decay but get distorted. Hence, interpretation plays a major role in remembering.

  3. Interference - This view explains that we forget because new material interferes with the retrieval of previously learnt information or old memories inhibit retention of new material.
    The two types of interference are proactive interference and retroactive interference
    (a) Retroactive interference (backward acting interference) - It is the partial or complete forgetting of previously learned material due to the interference of new material. For e.g., At a party, Suman is introduced to many new people. By the end of the party, she has forgotten the names of many to whom she was first introduced.
    (b) Proactive interference (forward acting interference) - It is partial or complete forgetting of newly learnt material due to interference by previously learnt material. for e.g., if a child is habituated to mispronouncing a word (old learning) and in spite of a teacher telling him the correct pronunciation (new material) he will still say the word as before.


Chapter 8 - Memory Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


  1. Motivated forgetting - People may consciously or unconsciously forget unwanted memories. The two levels of motivated forgetting are repression and thought suppression
    (a) Repression - According to Sigmund Freud, we subconsciously push unwanted or painful memories into the unconscious for e.g., a boy who was kidnapped as an infant, may forget it, but have difficulty in trusting others throughout life.
    (b) Thought suppression - It is a conscious effort to forget about painful experiences of life for e.g., a person who was falsely implicated in a criminal case may refuse to talk about it.

  2. Retrieval failure - The person knows something but cannot remember it when needed. This occurs due
    (i) to the inadequate encoding of material
    (ii) improper storage
    (iii) incorrect retrieval cues
    (iv) the person is under emotional pressure at that time of recall.



Arrange the following elements in concepts of memory in ascending order.

Elaborative rehearsal, Short Term Memory, Receiving information from the environment, Long Term Memory, Retrieval.


SOLUTION

  1. Receiving information from the environment

  2. Short Term Memory

  3. Elaborative rehearsal

  4. Long Term Memory

  5. Retrieval


Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

The answers for the Balbharati books are the best study material for students. These Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Story of Psychology

 • Chapter 2: Branches of Psychology

 • Chapter 3: Self

 • Chapter 4: Human Development

 • Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me

 • Chapter 6: Stress

 • Chapter 7: Nervous System

 • Chapter 8: Memory


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