Chapter 7 - Nervous System Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 7: Nervous System


Complete the following statements with appropriate options.



Brain is a part of _________ nervous system.

OPTIONS

  • Central

  • Peripheral

  • Somatic



____________ are the building blocks of the nervous system.

OPTIONS

  • Cells

  • Neurons

  • Tissues



___________ nervous system prepares us for the fight or flight responses.

OPTIONS

  • Somatic

  • Parasympathetic

  • Sympathetic



The gap between two neurons is called _________

OPTIONS

  • Synapse

  • Joint

  • Vacuum



SOLUTION

The gap between two neurons is called Synapse



Match the following pairs.

Column A

Column B

1. Thyroxin

a) Pituitary

2. Epinephrine

b) Parathyroid

3. Parathormone

c) Thyroid

4. Androgen

d) Adrenal gland

5. Somatotropic hormones

e) Salivary gland

 

f) Sex glands



SOLUTION

Column A

Column B

1. Thyroxin

c) Thyroid

2. Epinephrine

d) Adrenal gland

3. Parathormone

b) Parathyroid

4. Androgen

f) Sex glands

5. Somatotropic hormones

a) Pituitary



Identify the odd item from the following series of words.

OPTIONS

  • Frontal lobe

  • Parietal lobe

  • Thalamus

  • Occipital lobe



OPTIONS

  • Dopamine

  • Serotonin

  • Norepinephrine

  • Uric Acid

  • GABA



OPTIONS

  • Dendrite

  • Nucleus

  • Tectum

  • Axon

  • Synapse



OPTIONS

  • Knee jerk

  • Sneezing

  • Thinking

  • Blinking of eyes



OPTIONS

  • Thyroid

  • Sweat glands

  • Adrenal gland

  • Gonads

  • Pituitary gland



Identify which hormones with hyposecretion or hypersecretion would lead to the following condition.

Abnormal height, gigantism

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Hyperactivity, speedy metabolism

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Cretinism

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Stunted growth, dwarfism

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Myxedema, fatigue, sluggishness, depression

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Increased appetite, overactivity, restlessness, lack of concentration

OPTIONS

  • Hyposecretion

  • Hypersecretion



Which part of the brain is involved in processing the following information.

Smelling a flower



SOLUTION

Smelling a flower - Temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.



Maintaining balance while standing upright


SOLUTION

Maintaining balance while standing upright - Cerebellum


Comprehending a speech


SOLUTION

Comprehending a speech - Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.



Memorizing a childhood experience


SOLUTION

Memorizing a childhood experience - Limbic System (Hippocampus).



Feeling touch


SOLUTION

Feeling touch - Somatosensory area in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex.



Seeing a picture


SOLUTION

Seeing a picture - Visual area in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.



Feeling hungry


SOLUTION

Feeling hungry - Hypothalamus



Feeling afraid


SOLUTION

Feeling afraid - Amygdala in the Limbic System.



Answer the following questions in 35 to 40 words.



Explain the functions of hypothalamus.


SOLUTION

Hypothalamus lies below the thalamus.

Its functions are:

  • To control homeostatic mechanisms.

  • It has centres for hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, sleep, etc.

  • It is called the body's 'pleasure centre'.

  • It also controls the pituitary gland.



Describe the functions of each of the four lobes.


SOLUTION

Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex has four lobes i.e. frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

  1. Frontal lobe - It plays a role in functions like thinking, memory, reasoning, etc. The Brocas area which is responsible for speech production lies here.

  2. Parietal lobe - It is involved in motor control and understanding information regarding the skin senses like touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.

  3. Occipital lobe - It is the centre for visual processing i.e. to process information about colour, shape, and movement of visual stimuli.

  4. Temporal lobe - Hearing, understanding language, memory for language take place due to the temporal lobe. The Wernicke's area which is responsible for comprehension in this lobe.



Explain the functions of Amygdala and Hippocampus.


SOLUTION

Amygdala and Hippocampus are parts of the limbic system.

  1. Amygdala - It is involved in mediating emotions especially fear. It stores the emotional memory of our experiences.

  2. Hippocampus - It is responsible for episodic, long term memories.



What is a synapse?


SOLUTION

There is a gap between two neurons called as the synapse (junction point).



How does a nerve impulse travel from one to another neuron?


SOLUTION

Neural messages pass from the dendrites to the next neuron, jumping across the synapse. The membranes on either side of the synapse are called 'presynaptic membrane' (of transmitting neuron) and 'postsynaptic membrane' (of the receiving neuron). The space lying between membranes is the synaptic cleft.

Chapter 7 - Nervous System Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


Which are the important parts of the hind brain? Explain their functions.


SOLUTION

The important parts of the hind brain are Cerebellum, Brainstem, and Reticular Activation System (RAS).

  • Cerebellum - It consists of two round structures. Cerebellum maintains body posture and body balance and coordinates muscle movement.

  • Brain stem - It's parts are Medulla oblongata and Pons.

  1. Medulla oblongata - It is the lowest part of the brain stem i.e., located at the base of the skull. Medulla is called 'vital centre of the brain' as it controls vital functions like blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, and digestive activities. It sends sensory impulses to the brain and receives motor impulses from the brain.

  2. Pons - It is located above the medulla. Pons serves as a bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres. It sends and receives information from the lower parts of the brain. It is concerned with hearing, balance. It has motor neurons which control facial movements.

  • Reticular Activation System (RAS) - It is also called the reticular formation. It is nut shaped and runs through the hind brain into the mid brain and fore brain. It is called the body's 'alarm clock' as it plays a vital role in producing a state of alertness and activity.



How do endocrine glands affect our behaviour?


SOLUTION

Endocrine glands secrete chemical substances called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The main endocrine glands are the Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenals, Pancreas, Gonads, Pineal gland, and Thymus. Over secretion or under secretion of any gland can cause serious problems for the person. E.g., hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas can result in diabetes. Endocrine glands regulate various bodily activities, control physical - physiological growth as well as emotional and cognitive development.



Write a short note.

Autonomic Nervous System



SOLUTION

Peripheral Nervous System consists of the Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Nervous System is further divided into the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System. Autonomic Nervous System controls internal activities of human body including heart rate, breathing, digestion, disposal of waste products and toxins.

Sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for the "flight or fight" reaction. For example, when you are chased by a dog, that time your heartbeat, palpitation increases and you start sweating. The job of the system is just opposite to its name.

Parasympathetic Nervous System takes over when the situation becomes normal. When this system takes over, your heart rate, palpitation, and sweating become normal. We regain our cool and composed state. It directs our body to store energy for emergencies.



Limbic System


SOLUTION

Limbic System is a part of fore brain.

The part of the limbic system are -

  1. Hippocampus - It is responsible for episodic, long term memories.

  2. Amygdala - It is involved in mediating emotions especially fear. It stores the emotional memory of our experiences.

  3. Thalamus (relay station of the brain) - It is an egg-shaped structure at the top of the brainstem. It receives all information from the sensory receptors in the body (except smell sense) and directs it to different areas of the cortex.

  4. Hypothalamus - It lies below the thalamus. It controls homeostatic mechanisms. Hypothalamus has centres for hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, sleep, etc. It is called the body's 'pleasure centre'. It also controls the pituitary gland.



Neurotransmitters


SOLUTION

The end buttons of the presynaptic neurons contain Neurotransmitters. These are chemical messengers. Each neurotransmitter has a unique chemical make-up and function when a neural message is passing through it excites or inhibits the neurotransmitter in it. This chemical reaction decides our reaction to various life events. Some neurotransmitters are Acetylcholine Dopamine, Serotonin, GABA, etc.

  1. Acetylcholine - It is a chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release to activate muscles.

  2. Dopamine - It is released by the brain which plays a number of roles. If the level of dopamine is normal, we experience happy, pleasant feeling. It also plays important role in the motivational process.

  3. Norepinephrine - It increases the force of skeletal muscles especially during fight or flight response.

  4. Serotonin - It plays a role mainly in cognition, reward, learning, memory and also controls wakefulness, sleep, hunger, thirst, etc.

  5. Glutamate - It helps in learning, memory, and maintaining sugar level.

  6. GABA (Gama Amino Butyric Acid) - If it is undersecreted, it leads to convulsions and the body cannot control its movements. It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter i.e. its principal role is to reduce the excitability of neurons throughout the nervous system.



Pituitary gland



SOLUTION

The pituitary gland or master gland is located at the base of the brain. It consists of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes growth hormone (which helps in bodily growth), ACTH (which controls secretion of adrenal glands), and prolactin (for the secretion of breast milk). If there is hypersecretion of growth hormone it results in gigantism while under the section of growth hormone results in dwarfism.


The posterior lobe of the pituitary secretes


Oxytocin which related with feelings of pleasure.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which is responsible for reabsorption of water by the kidneys.

Pituitrin which affects the functioning of smooth muscles.

T.T.H (which controls the secretion by thyroid glands).


Compare and contrast.

Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System



SOLUTION

Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System are parts of Autonomic Nervous System. Sympathetic nervous system prepares our body to face stressful and threatening situations. It prepares us for a 'flight or fight' reaction. For example, if you are chased by a dog, your heartbeat and breathing rate increases and you start sweating. Parasympathetic Nervous System takes over when the situation becomes normal. When this system takes over, your heart rate, palpitation and sweating becomes normal. We regain our composed state. It directs our body to store energy for emergencies.


Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands


SOLUTION

Glands are specialized groups of cells or organs that secrete chemical substances. Glands are of two categories: exocrine glands and endocrine glands.

  1. Exocrine glands (duct glands) - Exocrine glands release their secretions directly into an organ or issue for e.g. tear glands, sweat glands, salivary glands.

  2. Endocrine glands (ductless glands) - Endocrine glands secrete chemical substances called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The main endocrine glands are the Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenals, Pancreas, Gonads, Pineal gland, and Thymus. Over secretion or under secretion of any gland can cause serious problems for the person. E.g., hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas can result in diabetes. Endocrine glands regulate various bodily activities, control physical - physiological growth as well as emotional and cognitive development.



Answer in 150 to 200 words.



Explain the functions of various parts of the human brain.


SOLUTION

The brain is made up of fore brain, mid brain, and hind brain.

Fore brain - It's main parts are the Cerebrum and Limbic system.

  1. Cerebrum - It is the largest part of the brain. It has two layers. The outer layer is grey in colour and is called the Cerebral Cortex. It regulates all the higher mental functions like attention, reasoning, learning, memory, etc. Its surface is wrinkled and divided into two symmetrical halves i.e., the right hemisphere and left hemisphere. These two hemispheres are connected by a bundle of fibres called as corpus callosum.
    Left hemisphere controls language while right hemisphere controls spatial relations and pattern recognition. Each hemisphere of the cortex has four lobes i.e., frontal, parietal. temporal and occipital lobes. Two main fissures include Rolando (central) fissure (which divides frontal lobe and parietal lobe and Sylvian (lateral) fissure (separates the temporal lobe from the rest of the brain).
    (a) Frontal lobe - It lies behind the forehead. It plays a role in functions like thinking, memory, reasoning, etc. The Broca's area which is responsible for speech production lies here.
    (b) Parietal lobe - It lies at the top of the skull, behind the frontal lobe. It is involved in motor control and understanding information regarding the skin senses like touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
    (c) Occipital lobe - It is situated at the back of the head, behind the parietal and temporal lobes. It is the centre for visual processing i.e., to process information about colour, shape and movement of visual stimuli.
    (d) Temporal lobe - It is located just above the ears. Hearing, understanding language, memory for language take place due to the temporal lobe. The Wernicke's area which is responsible for comprehension of language lies in this lobe.

  2. Limbic System - The parts of the limbic system are:
    (a) Hippocampus - It is responsible for episodic, long term memories.
    (b) Amygdala - It is involved in mediating emotions, especially fear. It stores the emotional memory of our experiences.
    (c) Thalamus (relay station of the brain) - It is an egg-shaped structure at the top of the brainstem. It receives all information from the sensory receptors in the body (except smell sense) and directs it to different areas of the cerebral cortex.
    (d) Hypothalamus - It lies below the thalamus. Hypothalamus controls homeostatic mechanisms. It has centres for hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, sleep, etc. Hypothalamus is called the body's 'pleasure centre'. It also controls the pituitary gland.

Mid brain - It is the bridge between the hind brain and fore brain. It contains two small structures viz. superior colliculus which controls eye movements and inferior colliculus which serves as the main auditory centre for the body.

Hind brain - It's parts are Cerebellum, Brain Stem and Reticular Activation System.

  1. Cerebellum - It consists of two round structures. Cerebellum maintains body posture and body balance and coordinates muscle movement.

  2. Brain Stem - It's parts are Medulla Oblongata and Pons.
    (a) Medulla oblongata - It is the lowest part of the brain stem i.e., located at the base of the skull. Medulla is called 'vital centre of the brain' as it controls vital functions like blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate and digestive activities. It sends sensory impulses to the brain and receives motor impulses from the brain.
    (b) Pons (bridge) - It is located above the medulla. Pons serves as a bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres. It sends and receives information from the lower parts of the brain. Pons is concerned with hearing, balance. It has motor neurons which control facial movement.

Chapter 7 - Nervous System Balbharati solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


Explain the significance of endocrine glands in human behaviour.

State the functions of any five endocrine glands in detail.



SOLUTION

Endocrine glands are ductless glands which secrete chemical substances called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The main endocrine glands are the Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenals, Pancreas, Gonads Pineal gland, and Thymus. Over secretion or under secretion of any gland can cause serious problems for the person. e.g., hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas can result in diabetes. Endocrine glands regulate various bodily activities, control physical - physiological growth as well as emotional and cognitive development.

  1. Pituitary gland - The pituitary gland or master gland is located at the base of the brain. It consists of the anterior lobe and posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes growth hormone (Which helps in bodily growth) ACTH (Which controls secretion of adrenal glands and prolactin for the secretion of breast milk). If there is hypersecretion of growth hormone it results in gigantism while under the section of growth hormone results in dwarfism.
    The posterior lobe of the pituitary secretes
    a. Oxytocin related with feelings of pleasure.
    b. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which is responsible for the reabsorption of water by the kidneys.
    c. Pituitrin which affects the functioning of smooth muscles.
    d. T.T.H Which controls the secretion by the thyroid gland.

  2. Adrenal gland - The two adrenal glands lie on top of the kidney. The two parts of the glands are adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex. Adrenal cortex secretes cortisone which helps in the regulation of sodium-potassium. Excess secretion of cortisone may make females more masculine looking while hyposecretion may make the person lazy and to lose weight. Adrenal medulla secretes adrenalin and noradrenalin which are important in the emotional experience of fear and anger.

  3. Thyroid gland - It is located in the neck. It secretes thyroxin which determines the general level of body metabolism. Hyposecretion of thyroxin results in Cretinism in children and Myxedema in adults. Hypersecretion causes Grave's disease.

  4. Parathyroid gland - They are located below the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroxin. Its function is to maintain the calcium - phosphate balance in the body. Oversecretion causes the person nausea/vomiting, sleepiness while under secretion causes the person to feel weak, lack energy, experience muscle cramps, and spasms.

  5. Pancreas - It secretes insulin and glycogen which maintains blood sugar level. Hypersecretion of insulin results in hyperglycemia while hyposecretion results in diabetes.


Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

The answers for the Balbharati books are the best study material for students. These Balbharati Solutions for Psychology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Story of Psychology

 • Chapter 2: Branches of Psychology

 • Chapter 3: Self

 • Chapter 4: Human Development

 • Chapter 5: Healthy Me - Normal Me

 • Chapter 6: Stress

 • Chapter 7: Nervous System

 • Chapter 8: Memory


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