Chapter 2 - Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 2: Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists


Complete the following statement by choosing the correct alternative and rewrite it.


The Industrial Revolution took place in __________.

OPTIONS

  • North America

  • Europe

  • Australia



SOLUTION

The Industrial Revolution took place in Europe.



Science is based on _____________.

OPTIONS

  • beliefs

  • facts

  • guess work



SOLUTION

Science is based on facts.


Significant work has been done on kinship organisation in India, by female sociologist ___________.

OPTIONS

  • Iravati Karve

  • Suma Chitnis

  • Neera Desai



SOLUTION

Significant work has been done on kinship organisation in India, by female sociologist Iravati Karve.



The ________ stage of societal growth is characterised by explanations which are abstract but not God-centered.

OPTIONS

  • Theological

  • Metaphysical

  • Positive



SOLUTION

The Metaphysical stage of societal growth is characterised by explanations which are abstract but not God-centered.



Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.

OPTIONS

  • Abdul Rahman Ibn-Khaldun - North Africa

  • Auguste Comte - France

  • Harriet Martineau - England

  • Karl Marx - Russia



SOLUTION

Karl Marx - Germany


Identify the appropriate term from the given options and rewrite it against the given statement.


Marx argues that classes will become hostile towards each other.

OPTIONS

  • Polarization

  • M. N. Srinivas

  • R. N. Mukherjee



SOLUTION

Marx argues that classes will become hostile towards each other. - Polarization



The Indian sociologist who coined the term westernization.

OPTIONS

  • Polarization

  • M. N. Srinivas

  • R. N. Mukherjee



SOLUTION

The Indian sociologist who coined the term westernization. - M. N. Srinivas



Correct underlined words and complete the statement.


The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the Theological stage.


SOLUTION

The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the positive/scientific stage.



The book ‘Le Suicide’ was written by Hobbes.


SOLUTION

The book 'Le Suicide' was written by Emile Durkheim.



Write short notes.


Contribution of G. S. Ghurye to Indian Sociology.


SOLUTION

Govind Sadashiv Ghurye was the first who introduced sociology in India after independence. Therefore, he is considered as the 'Father of Indian Sociology'. He established the 'Indian Sociological Society' and started the journal 'Sociological Bulletin'. Ghurye's work on scheduled tribes were based on the historical, administrative, and social dimensions of Indian tribes. He wanted the tribals to be integrated with the wider Indian society. He has written on tribes like Mahadev Kolis in Maha Rashtra. His book, 'Caste and Race in India' is one of the most important contributions to Indian sociology.



Types of suicide according to Durkheim.


SOLUTION

  1. Egoistic suicide: It is committed when individuals become socially isolated. These individuals are generally self-centered and have nothing to do with other members of society. E.g. suicide by introverts.

  2. Anomic suicide: It is committed when individuals are unable to cope with unexpected situations which are against the norms. E.g. suicides during an economic depression.

  3. Altruistic suicide: It is committed when individuals feel that they can do well for others by ending their own life. E.g. Hara-kiri (by Japanese Soldiers) or Sati (by Indian women in past).

  4. Fatalistic suicide: It is committed when the repressive (exploitive) feeling is generated in an individual’s mind due to extreme control by an external factor. E.g. student’s suicide due to career-related pressure from parents.



Write differences.


Theological stage and Positive stage.


SOLUTION

Theological Stage

Positive Stage

1. Theological stage is the first stage of Comte's Law of three stages.

1. Positive stage is last or third stage-of Comte's law of three stages.

2. Human thinking, ideas and views were influenced by spiritual and supernatural factors.

2. This is an improved rational, scientific form of human thinking.

3. All societies believed that God controls all events in the world.

3. Instead of imagination and superstitious belief, societies turn towards empirical scientific approach.

4. Example: Natural calamities like flood, drought etc, were the expression's of God's anger.

4. Example: Discoveries of Newton and Galileo.




Anomic suicide and Altruistic suicide.

SOLUTION

Anomic suicide

Altruistic suicide

1. Anomic suicide is committed when individuals are unable to cope with unexpected situations which are against the norms.

1. Altruistic suicide is committed when individuals feel that they can do well for others by ending their own life.

2. It is not value-oriented suicide.

2. It is value-oriented suicide.

3. It occurs due to normlessness or moral vacuum.

3. It occurs due to affection and care for loved ones.

4. Example: Farmer’s suicide due to economic hardships and poor climatic conditions.

4. Example: Suicide by a terminally ill patient to relieve the family of economic and mental hardships.



State whether the following statement is True or False with reasons.


According to Marx, capitalism gives rise to we feeling among workers.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is false.

Reason: In capitalist society capitalists exploit the workers in a maximum way. This exploitation resulted in poverty. Such economic exploitation and inhuman condition gives rise to feeling of alienation, instead of oneness. That is why, capitalism gives rise to alienated feeling instead of we feeling.



Iravati Karve has made significant contribution to the study of Kinship in India.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is true.

Reason: Iravati Karve’s book ‘Kinship Organisation in India’ (1953) offers a microanalysis of major kinship systems in India. It provides a comparative study of the Kinship organisation in different Indian regions. e.g. kinship terms in major Indian languages, their linguistic content, corresponding behaviour, marriage patterns, etc. Karve presented the kinship organisation based on geographical (Northern, Central, Southern and Eastern) and linguistic regions (Indo-European and Dravidian).



Complete the concept map.

Chapter 2 - Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board



SOLUTION

  1. Dr. G. S. Ghurye

  2. Dr. M. N. Srinivas

  3. Dr. Iravati Karve

  4. B. K. Sarkar



Give your personal response.


Do you think globalization has led to polarization of classes? Discuss with relevant examples of your own.


SOLUTION

Yes, globalization has led to the polarization of classes. This has led to the segregation of people in the society that may emerge from income inequality, economic restructuring, etc. It leads to the differentiation of groups on the basis of high income and low income. Skilled people manage to get high paying jobs while the less educated/skilled people receive low wages.



Do you think kinship bonds are weakening? Give reasons for your response.


SOLUTION

Yes,

Kinship relations refer to bonds formed on the basis of family, caste, and language. These relations are weakening in India. It is evident from the movement of people from the joint family systems to nuclear families and migration from original, ancestral locations to urban areas. With increased modernisation and the foray of digitalisation, people have become more materialistic. Their emotional attachment with family, people belonging to their caste and the linguistic group has weakened over time.



Answer the following question in detail. (About 150 words)

You have studied about Comte’s Law of Three Stages of human thought. With reference to the first and third stage, comment on the challenges it poses for Indian society.



SOLUTION

1. In the first stage of human thought (i.e. Theological Stage), it was believed that God is the creator and controller of all things. The challenges in this stage are:

  1. Ideas and views lack a logical base as they are influenced by spiritual and supernatural factors.

  2. The belief that God has a monopoly over all events may discourage individuals from working hard.

  3. People may not take responsibility for their misdoings thinking that everything results from the action of supernatural beings.

2. In the third stage of human thought (i.e. Positive/Scientific stage), human beings resort to the improved and scientific form of thinking. The challenges in this stage are:

  1. Individuals rely on reasoning and examination for obtaining knowledge. It requires them to carry out a detailed investigation of each phenomenon.

  2. Individuals have to use observation instead of imagination to derive knowledge.

  3. Sometimes, it may become difficult to establish laws that link facts and govern social life.


Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board Chapterwise

These Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociology

 • Chapter 2: Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

 • Chapter 3: Basic Concepts in Sociology

 • Chapter 4: Social Institutions

 • Chapter 5: Culture

 • Chapter 6: Socialization

 • Chapter 7: Social Stratification

 • Chapter 8: Social Change


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