Chapter 7 - Social Stratification Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 7: Social Stratification


Complete the following statement by choosing the correct alternative given in the bracket and rewrite it.


Social stratification is _________.

OPTIONS

  • local

  • national

  • universal



SOLUTION

Social stratification is universal.



Class is a _________ form of stratification.

OPTIONS

  • open

  • closed

  • rigid



SOLUTION

Class is a open form of stratification.

Gender based stratification has led to _______ in society.

OPTIONS

  • justice

  • exploitation

  • equality



SOLUTION

Gender based stratification has led to exploitation in society.



Social stratification of _______ is based on the principle of purity and pollution.

OPTIONS

  • class

  • gender

  • caste



SOLUTION

Social stratification of caste is based on the principle of purity and pollution.



Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.

OPTIONS

  • Ownership of wealth - Economic capital

  • Membership and involvement in social network - Social capital

  • Gained through education - Cultural capital

  • Prestige, status and social honour - Economic capital



SOLUTION

Prestige, status and social honour – Symbolic capital



Correct underlined words and complete the statement.

Caste is based on wealth.



SOLUTION

Class is based on wealth.



A hierarchical system where women are given a lower social status is stratification based on class.


SOLUTION

A hierarchical system where women are given a lower social status is stratification based on gender.



Write short note.

Principles of social stratification



SOLUTION

  1. Stratification is social: Social stratification is not determined by biological differences but it is governed by social norms and sanctions.

  2. Social stratification persists over generations: In all societies parents confer their social status on their children. Thus the pattern of inequality stays same from generation to generation.

  3. Social stratification is universal but variable: Social stratification is found everywhere. At the same time the nature of inequality varies. 'What' is unequal and 'how' unequal, changes within the context of a society.

  4. Social stratification involves inequality: Any stratified system not only gives people more resources but also justifies this arrangement and defines them as fair.

  5. Social stratification is consequential: Stratification affects every aspect of life of all individuals. Social life is affected because of the position of an individual in the social hierarchy. Some experience positive consequences, while others face negative consequence of the hierarchy in a particular society.



Characteristics of caste according to Dr. G. S. Ghurye


SOLUTION

The characteristics of caste given by Dr. G. S. Ghurye are as follows:

  1. Segmental division of society: Society is divided into various castes which are hereditary. The status of a person in caste-based society is not determined by the wealth he owns but it depends on the status of the caste in which he is born. Each caste is a well-developed social group and has its own traditional social status, occupations, customs, rules and regulations. Since membership is based on birth, mobility from one caste to another is impossible.

  2. Hierarchy: According to Ghurye castes are graded and arranged into a hierarchy on the basis of the concept of ‘purity and pollution.’ Hierarchy is a scheme which arranges castes in terms of higher (or superior) and lower (or inferior) status, in relation to each other. The relative ranking of specific caste groups differs from one place to another.

  3. Restriction on feeding and social intercourse: Each caste imposes restrictions on its members with regards to food and social intercourse. This also leads to separation or distance between castes.

  4. Differential civil and religious privileges and disabilities: In a caste society, there is an unequal distribution of privileges and disabilities among its members. While higher caste people enjoy all privileges, lower caste people suffer from different kinds of disabilities.

  5. Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation: Each caste or a group of allied castes is traditionally associated with a particular occupation. Occupations are hereditary and the members of a caste are expected to follow their traditional occupation.

  6. Endogamy: Castes are divided into sub-castes and each sub-caste is an endogamous group. Every caste or sub-caste insists that its members should marry within the group.



Types of mobility


SOLUTION

  1. Horizontal Mobility: It refers to change of residence or job without status change. Under this type of social mobility, a person changes one's occupation but the overall social standing remains the same. Certain occupation like doctor, engineer and teacher may enjoy the same status but when an engineer changes one's occupation from engineer to teaching engineering there is a horizontal shift from one occupational category to another but no change has taken place in the system of social stra tification.

  2. Vertical Mobility: Vertical mobility refers to any change in the occupational, economic, political status of an individual or a group which leads to change of their position. Vertical Mobility stands for change of social position, either upward or downward.

  3. Intergenerational Mobility: This type of mobility means that one generation changes its social status in contrast to the previous generation. However, this mobility may be upward or downward. For e.g., people of lower caste or class may provide facilities to their children to get higher education, training and skills, with the help of which the younger generation may get employment in higher position.

  4. Intragenerational Mobility: This type of mobility takes place in the lifespan of one generation. A person may start one's career as a clerk and after acquiring more education, becomes an IFS Officer. Here the individual moves up and occupies a higher social position than previously.



Write difference.

Caste and Class



SOLUTION

Caste

Class

1. Different castes form a hierarchy of social preference and each position in the caste structure is defined in terms of its 'purity and pollution'.

1. A social class is made up of similar social status who regard one another as social equals.

2. In a caste stratification system, an individual's position depends on the status attributes ascribed by birth.

2. In a class stratification system and individual's position depends on the possession of substantial amounts of wealth, occupation, education, and prestige which is achieved.

3. Caste is an example of closed stratification.

3. Class system is an example of open stratification.

4. In this type of social stratification there is no scope for social mobility.

4. In this type of social stratification there is scope for social mobility.



Intragenerational mobility and Intergenerational mobility.


SOLUTION

Caste

Class

1. Intragenerational mobility takes place in the life span of one generation.

1. Intergenerational mobility takes place when one generation changes its social status as compared to the previous generation.

2. e.g. A person may start his career as a clerk. He may then acquire more education and become an IFS officer. After becoming an IFS officer, he occupies a higher social position.

2. e.g. People of the lower class may provide higher education to their children and so, the younger generation may get employment in higher positions.



Explain the following concept with an example.

Vertical mobility



SOLUTION

Vertical mobility refers to any change in the occupational economic or political status of an individual or a group which leads to a change in their position. Vertical mobility stands for a change of social position either upward or downward, which can be labelled as an ascending or descending type of mobility.

Example: A person who works as a customer assistant, works hard, and starts his own business successfully. In such a position there is a clear change in the position of the individual.



Intergenerational mobility


SOLUTION

Intergenerational mobility takes place when one generation changes its social status as compared to the previous generation.

Example: Amit’s parents were illiterate and used to work on someone else’s farm. Amit was brilliant and determined. So, he became a doctor and thus, enjoyed greater social status than his parents.


State whether the following statement is True or False with reasons.

There is no mobility in the class system.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Reason: Class system is an example of open stratification in which individuals or groups enjoy the freedom of changing their social strata, i.e., in-class system there is scope for social mobility.



Education has led to women’s empowerment.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Reason: There has been an unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women for a long period of time. Women were always assigned lower social ranking than their male counterparts. Education has brought awareness among women regarding this inequality and the need to raise a voice against it. Education also made women more skilled and knowledgeable and thereby, led to their empowerment.



Complete the concept map.

Complete the concept map Chapter 7 Social Stratification


SOLUTION

  1. Determined by birth

  2. No scope of social mobility

  3. Less importance to achieved status

  4. More rigid than class stratification



Answer the following question in detail. (About 150 words)

Discuss class and gender as forms of social stratification with suitable examples of your own.



SOLUTION

  1. Class stratification: The relative position of each class in the social set up arises from the degree of prestige attached to it. Social classes differ from each other in terms of their ways of dressing, standards of living, means of recreation, etc. e.g. people belonging to the upper class may purchase only branded clothes, go on international trips often, purchase luxury cars than middle and lower-class individuals.

  2. Gender stratification: It refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between the two sexes. e.g. in brick kilns, payment is usually decided on the basis of each brick made by a person. In many cases, male workers get higher payment per brick than their female counterparts. It represents discrimination as both male and female workers are engaged in exactly the same work. The basis for this discrimination is gender stratification.

Sociology 11th Standard Balbharati Solutions Maharashtra State Board

Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board Chapterwise. These Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociology

 • Chapter 2: Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

 • Chapter 3: Basic Concepts in Sociology

 • Chapter 4: Social Institutions

 • Chapter 5: Culture

 • Chapter 6: Socialization

 • Chapter 7: Social Stratification

 • Chapter 8: Social Change


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