Chapter 3 - Basic Concepts in Sociology Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 3: Basic Concepts in Sociology


Complete the following statement by choosing the correct alternative given in the bracket and rewrite it.


Society is based on ___________.

OPTIONS

  • co-operation

  • competition

  • conflict



SOLUTION

Society is based on co-operation.



Villages are a part of _______________  community.

OPTIONS

  • rural

  • city

  • metropolitan



SOLUTION

Villages are a part of rural community.



Family is an example of a __________ group.

OPTIONS

  • large

  • primary

  • formal



SOLUTION

Family is an example of a primary group.



Social status refers to _________ in a group.

OPTIONS

  • function

  • position

  • purpose



SOLUTION

Social status refers to position in a group.


Correct the incorrect pair and rewrite it.

OPTIONS

  • Family - Voluntary group

  • Caste - Involuntary group

  • Village - Primary group

  • Work place - Secondary group



SOLUTION

Family - Involuntary Group



Identify the appropriate term from the given options in the box and rewrite it against the given statement.


Punctuality in class is the duty of a student.

OPTIONS

  • Role

  • Folkways

  • Society



SOLUTION

Punctuality in class is the duty of a student.-- Role



In many places in India, eating with hands is a common practice

OPTIONS

  • Role

  • Folkways

  • Society



SOLUTION

In many places in India, eating with hands is a common practice.-- Folkways



Correct underlined words and complete the statement.


Norms which can be applied in daily life are called ideal norms.


SOLUTION

Norms which can be applied in daily life are called standard norms.



Family is an example of a/an voluntary group.


SOLUTION

Family is an example of a/an involuntary group.



Write short notes.


Characteristics of society


SOLUTION

Society includes likeness: According to Maciver 'society' means likeness. Social relationships exist among those who are alike in body and mind. People have similarities with regard to their needs aim, ideals, values, outlook towards life, and so on.

Society includes difference: A society together with likeness is also based on differences. The difference is an important factor for a healthy society. Different types of personalities are essential in our society in order to satisfy different needs. These differences are based on sex, age, physical strength, intelligence, talent, personality, and unequal possessions of material objects and wealth.

Interdependence: Individuals in society depend upon one another for the satisfaction of needs. One group, one nation, one community depends upon the other for its development. Interdependence is seen in family groups as well. The existence of society depends upon different types of social relationships.

Co-operation: Every society is characterized by co-operation and division of labour. It is necessary for survival.

Normative nature: In a society, social behavior is evaluated by social control. These controlling means are known as norms. Norms control the misbehaviour or the acts which are harmful to society thus protecting society.

Society is dynamic: No society is static. It changes continuously; old customs, traditions, values, norms, and institutions replace the new customs, traditions, values, norms, and institutions.



Characteristics of primary groups


SOLUTION

Permanence of relationship: Relations among members are permanent in nature. It results in greater solidarity.

End in itself: The relationship among members is not a means to achieve any objective. These relations are very close, natural and an end in itself.

Physical proximity: There is physical proximity (closeness) among members. e.g. individual stays in the vicinity. 

Smallness of group: The size of the group is limited and hence, there is a close relationship among members. e.g. Family

Informal control: There is no formal control over members. Their behaviour is based on conventional norms and emotional bonds.

Objectives and goals: The members have similar/ same objectives and goals. They share all kinds of feelings and respect each other.

Face-to-face relationship: Since members have proximity, most of their interactions occur face-to-face. It contributes to group stability.

Other characteristics: Primary groups have personal, inclusive, and spontaneous relations among members.



Types of norms


SOLUTION

Folkways: The term was first used by William Sumner. According to him, folkways are the recognized ways of behaving and acting in society. For example, eating using one's fingers, eating with chopsticks, eating with fork and spoon; different ways of wearing a sari.

Mores: Mores are more rigid than folkways. They are instruments of social control and deal with higher values of people. For example, sexual relations before marriage are not permitted.

Law: Law is an important and essential element of society. They have deliberately formulated rules of behavior. It is universal in nature and common for all to follow. There are two types of law - Customary Law and Enacted Law.



Write differences.


Primary group and Secondary group


SOLUTION

No.

Primary group

Secondary group

i.

The group identity is an end in itself and members have intimate relations with one another

These groups are deliberately formed to achieve ends and members have distant relations.

ii.

There is physical proximity and face-to-face interaction among members.

There is the physical distance among members and face-to-face interactions may be absent.

iii.

The group is small in size and relations between members are informal.

The group is large in size and relations between members are formal.

iv.

There is mutual co-operation among the members.

Mutual co-operation among members is difficult.

v.

This group is instrumental in an individual’s day to day life

This group is non-instrumental in an individual’s day to day life.

vi.

There is informal control over the behaviour of members

There is formal control over the behaviour of members.

vii.

The relation among members is an end in itself and hence, the relationship tends to be more permanent.

The relation among members is a means to an end and hence, relationships are neither long-lasting nor permanent.

viii.

e.g. Family, Neighbourhood, Peer group.

e.g. Nation, Commercial Companies, Labour Union, Political parties.



Involuntary group and Voluntary group


SOLUTION

No.

Voluntary Group

Involuntary Group

i.

Membership is based on choice.

Membership is based on birth.

ii.

It may be temporary or permanent in nature

It is mostly permanent in nature.

iii.

An individual has a choice to continue or to leave the membership.

One cannot leave the membership or it may be difficult to leave the group

iv.

Example: Political parties, youth organisation, cultural association, etc.

Example: Family, caste, race, religion, etc.




Explain the following concept with suitable examples.


Reference Group


SOLUTION

Reference group is a group used by individuals as a guide to their own behaviour. Individuals compare themselves with members of the reference groups while making assessments regarding their own qualities, attitudes, values, and behaviours.

Example: A person who is an aspiring musician may have a rock band or a group of artists from a musical ‘Gharana’ as his reference group



Role Conflict


SOLUTION

Role conflict refers to a clash between roles. When one faces incompatibility between two or more roles at the same time or in a given situation. Role conflict is inevitable.

Example: A boss will suffer role conflict if forced to fine an employee who is also a close friend. A newly married bride experiences role conflict because she has to adjust with her in-laws, household work, and office work.



State whether the following statement is True or False with reasons.




Society never changes.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is False.

Society is a web of social relationships. These relationships and interactions are based upon different institutions, traditions, customs, values, and norms of the society. Changes in any one of this is reflected in the changes in relationship and interaction among the individuals. Change is a universal phenomenon. No single society is static. Factors like, westernisation, modernisation, industrialisation, education have brought various changes in society. Today, the educational system, family patterns, norms, values, needs, etc., are changed. People have become more self-centered. Individual freedom, consciousness towards one's own rights are increasing. Hence, society is changing continuously.



People living in a community must have awareness of sharing a way of life

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Community is group of people living in a definite territory to fulfil common objectives and needs. Two elements of community are: Locality and Community sentiment.

Community sentiment is a shared sense of belonging. People in a community must be aware of the fact that they stay together and have common interests.

Due to community sentiment, they develop emotional attachment towards the community


Complete the concept map

 

Chapter 3 - Basic Concepts in Sociology Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board



SOLUTION

Chapter 3 - Basic Concepts in Sociology Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


Give your personal response.


Show how folkways, mores and laws may clash with each other


SOLUTION

Folkways is one of the essential element of culture. Folkways govern our daily routine and ordinary contact with other people. Whereas mores are considered as vital to the welfare of the group. Folkways and mores are the customary way of life and standards of right and wrong. Example: wearing clothes are mores and wearing clothes of different styles are folkways.

Laws are deliberately formulated rules of behaviour that are enforced by special authority. e.g., there are laws that can punish people for marrying more than one person. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Mores, folkways, and laws are taught through the process of socialisation by various sources like family, friends, peer groups, schools, etc. However, these three clashes with each other in various ways. In today's complex, competitive society, one finds it difficult to cope up with these three elements of society. For example, there is a man who belongs to a poor family and has the responsibility of marriage of his sister. Being born in a poor family, he doesn't have enough money for his sister's marriage. As per the laws, asking for dowry is illegal, but due to his financial condition, he has to ask for dowry from his in-laws to get his sister married. In such a situation folkways, mores and law clash with each other.



Do you think that role conflict is inevitable in social life?


SOLUTION

Yes

Role conflict arises when different roles that a person is supposed to perform in a given situation are incompatible.

Role conflict is unavoidable in life since everyone simultaneously performs multiple roles.

E.g. you are performing the role of student in college, the role of a son/daughter at home, the role of a friend in a peer group. It could lead to conflict when you are required to act in different ways as per different roles at the same time.

Hence, role conflict is inevitable in social life.



Answer the following question in detail(About 150 words)

Identify any two secondary groups of which you are a member. Discuss any four characteristics with reference to the groups that you have named.



SOLUTION

Secondary groups have impersonal, formal, indirect, temporary, and goal-oriented relationships with a large number of members. It is not possible to have regular, permanent, close, and intimate relations with everyone. People meet each other only for serving specific purposes. Relations are maintained only when the specific purposes are fulfilled and people are satisfied. People are always very busy and it is necessary to have appointments before the meeting. Secondary groups are heterogeneous and formal in nature. People are given time to meet but for that purpose only. People do not meet for long-term goals. Free expressions of emotions, feelings, and intimacy are not allowed. In the secondary group, members have to follow rules and regulations strictly.

Example :

(i) Student of a college

(ii) Member of NSUI - National Students Union of India (or) ABVP - Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parishad

Characteristics of the secondary group with reference to the above-mentioned group.

Large Size: In college or in NSUI number of students and members is large. Here, the membership is unlimited as compared to the primary group.

Indirect relations: Due to the large size, direct relations among all the students and members are not possible. To convey any message we take help of modern means of communication, e.g., mobile phones, e-mail, WhatsApp., etc.

Impersonal relations: As the members are large in size personal interactions are very rarely seen. Here, we do not know each other personally. That is why the relationship is not personal.

Formal relations: Informal relations is not possible because face to face contact can't take place. People are more goal-oriented. Membership is strictly based upon laws and regulations.


Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board Chapterwise

These Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociology

 • Chapter 2: Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

 • Chapter 3: Basic Concepts in Sociology

 • Chapter 4: Social Institutions

 • Chapter 5: Culture

 • Chapter 6: Socialization

 • Chapter 7: Social Stratification

 • Chapter 8: Social Change


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