Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociology


Complete the following statements by choosing the correct alternative given in the bracket and rewrite it


The term ‘socius’ means _________.

OPTIONS

  • science

  • companion

  • social



SOLUTION

The term ‘socius’ means companion.



The term ‘logos’ means ____________.

OPTIONS

  • associate

  • science

  • methodology



SOLUTION

The term ‘logos’ means science.



________ is often regarded as the Father of Sociology.

OPTIONS

  • Durkheim

  • Weber

  • Comte



SOLUTION

Comte is often regarded as the Father of Sociology.



When sociologists make an effort to understand practical problems of daily life it is a/an _____________ science.

OPTIONS

  • pure

  • application

  • theoretical



SOLUTION

When sociologists make an effort to understand practical problems of daily life it is a/an application science.



Correct the incorrect pair.

OPTIONS

  • Study of role of biology in human life - Bio-Sociology. 

  • Study of social words of art and aesthetics - Sociology of Art.

  • Theoretical of knowledge in Sociology in marketing segmental division of customers, needs analysis, etc. - Sociology of Market Research.

  • Study of visual dimensions of social life - Diaspora Studies.



Identify the appropriate term from the given options and rewrite it against the given statement.


Comte coined the term Sociology in this book.

OPTIONS

  • Diaspora Studies

  • The Positive Philosophy

  • Theoretical science



SOLUTION

Comte coined the term Sociology in this book. - The Positive Philosophy



Sociology is concerned with developing sociological theory.

OPTIONS

  • Diaspora Studies

  • The Positive Philosophy

  • Theoretical science



SOLUTION

Sociology is concerned with developing sociological theory. - Theoretical science



Correct underlined words and complete the statement.


When sociological research is done for its own sake it makes Sociology a/an applied science.


SOLUTION

When sociological research is done for its own sake it makes Sociology a theoretical science.



Rape, hate crimes and terrorism are examples of social institutions.


SOLUTION

Rape, hate crimes and terrorism are examples of social problems.



Write short notes.


New emerging areas in Sociology


SOLUTION

The subject matter of sociology is very wide. Hence, new areas emerging in sociology are:

Bio-sociology: Studies the role of biology in human social life.

Sociology of art: Helps to understand the social world of art and aesthetics. Sociology of market research: It deals with the theoretical knowledge of sociology in marketing, segmental division of customers, needs analysis, etc.

Visual sociology: Based on visual dimensions of social life.

Diaspora studies: Studies migration and its cultural, literacy, social, demographic, anthropological, political, economic impact, and international relations.



Enlightenment period


SOLUTION

  1. Emergence of Sociology as a scientific discipline can be traced back to the ‘Enlightenment period’.

  2. It is the period of European thought that witnessed remarkable social, political, and economic changes.

  3. This period stressed the importance of positive, logical, and scientific thinking as well as experience. It challenged religious and traditional authority.

  4. Individuals moved from traditional to a new way of thinking and perceiving reality. They logically questioned each aspect of life.

  5. Scientific and rational thinking remained at the forefront during this period.

  6. Intellectuals in this period (such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Bacon, Machiavelli) placed importance on the cause and effect relationship.

  7. This period led to the emergence of ideas of secular, liberal, and democratic societies.



Nature of Sociology


SOLUTION

  1. Empirical science: It studies social facts based on scientific methods. The method involves analysing actual experiences. Sociological rules are framed based on these experiences.

  2. Theoretical and applied science: It is ‘pure science’ since it involves the formulation of new theories and verification of existing theories. It is also an ‘applied science’ since its many branches apply sociological knowledge to reality.

  3. Factual science: It does not deal with the question of ‘what should/ ought to be’. Instead, it discovers the reality of society. e.g. it studies constructive and destructive social elements.

  4. Holistic science: It is not restricted to one particular social aspect. It studies all dimensions of social life, i.e., it is the study of society as a whole.



Write difference.


Natural science and Social science.


SOLUTION

Natural Science

Social Science

A study of natural Sciences includes physical. chemical and biological factors of nature.

Social sciences like economics, political science, sociology studies different aspects of society with major concerns of human beings.

It studies objectively and in very scientific manner because experimentation in the laboratory is possible.

It also studies objectively and adopts certain scientific methods but to conduct experiment in the laboratory is not possible at all times.

Results and findings are more accurate and exact.

Difficult to maintain accuracy and exact predictions about human behaviour.

Example: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Botany, etc.

Example: Sociology. Geography, History, etc.



Theoretical science and Applied science.



SOLUTION


Theoretical science

Applied science

Theoretical science involves the continuous formation of new theories and verification of existing theories.

Applied science involves the application of theoretical knowledge in practical or real life.

Its findings add to theoretical knowledge.

Its findings help to solve actual problems.

Sociology is a theoretical science since it involves the consistent formulation of new theories.

Sociology is also an applied science since its many branches apply sociological knowledge in practical life.

e.g. Pure sciences such as physics; Theories regarding social structure

e.g. Applied sciences such as technology; Study to improve social relations



Explain the concept with suitable examples.


Diaspora


SOLUTION

Diaspora is the movement of the people from their original place to other geographical areas. Though people migrate they maintain their originality in the migrated area. The people, though they have migrated from their original place, follow their rituals, customs and maintain their original existence in areas where they have been migrated.

Example: Migration of rural people to urban areas.



Bio-Sociology


SOLUTION

Bio-sociology studies the role of biology in human social life with the help of various methodologies.

Example: Bio-sociology would analyse similarities and differences between men and women as a result of biological and social factors.



State whether the following statement is True or False with reasons.


The French revolution led to changes in society.

OPTIONS

  • True

  • False



SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Reason: French Revolution was one of the best examples of the struggle for freedom and equality. Through this revolution, the feudal system had been overthrown. The new system came into existence which was based on the principles of liberty, fraternity, and equality. French revolution brought tremendous changes in the life of the people not only in France but all over Europe. Hence, the French revolution led to changes in society.



The developments in natural science has had an impact on sociology as a discipline.


SOLUTION

This statement is True.

Natural sciences deal with the physical world.

There is an interconnection between the branches of natural science and sociology. e.g. bio-sociology. Hence, development in biology would be associated with concurrent changes in bio-sociology.

 Another explanation for this is, Sociology uses the scientific methodology,  and hence, development in science would have an impact on sociology.



 Complete the concept map.

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Sociology Balbharati solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board



SOLUTION

Importance of Sociology

  1. Studies society in a scientific manner

  2. Keeps people updated and alert

  3. Develops scientific approach

  4. Career-oriented

  5. The solution to social problems

  6. Gives knowledge of social diversities



Give your personal response.


Is India in the ‘scientific’ stage of growth? Explain why you hold the view that you do


SOLUTION

Yes, India is in the 'scientific' stage of growth. During the ancient period, India faced many social problems like blind faith, illiteracy, child-infanticide, etc. Many cultural, political differences, etc., were followed. By adopting scientific methods, sociologists have been trying to minimize the problems. They suggested some measures to the government to find out certain solutions to solve the problems. The technological and scientific advancement influenced every sector of life.



Explain in brief the link between Cinema and Society.


SOLUTION

  1. Cinema aids in studying various aspects of society (such as caste, ethnicity, gender).

  2. Cinemas also have various cultural, economic, and political implications for the society.

  3. Similarly, the type of society also has influence on types of cinemas that are created.

  4. Interrelation between the two is clearly visible in courses such as ‘Sociology through films’ or ‘Cinematic Sociology’



Answer the following question in detail (about 150 words).

Discuss with suitable examples, the scope of Sociology in today’s world.


SOLUTION

The following points explain the scope of sociology in today's world.

  1. Bio-Sociology - Example: Gender differences and discrimination. Biologically male and female are different. Both have different strengths and capacity because of their body structure. But in society culture plays different role in nurturing them. These discrimination and differences affected society in a great way.

  2. Sociology of Art- Example: Warli paintings depict their lifestyle or paintings related with Mohenjo Daro and Harappan Civilization. This area helps to understand the social world of art and aesthetics.

  3. Sociology of Market Research- Example: Advertising of bathing soap by convincing the people that they have used river Ganga's water in that. This is an applied field that connects marketing and sociological strategies to understand the market in a meaningful ways.

  4. Visual Sociology - Example: A researcher takes the help of newspapers, film, movies, photographs for their study, or for the study of a particular society. Visual sociology is concerned with the visual dimension of social life. With the help of a film, movies, pictures one can visualize or imagine a particular problem, on the basis of which valid and relevant data can be collected.

  5. Diaspora Studies - Example: Migration of rural people to the urban areas. Diaspora is one of the movements of the people from their original place to other geographical areas. Though people migrate they maintain their originality in the migrated area. The people though they have migrated from their original place, follow their rituals, customs and maintain their original existence in areas where they have migrated.


Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board Chapterwise

These Balbharati Solutions for Sociology 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board will help students understand the concepts better.


 • Chapter 1: Introduction to Sociology

 • Chapter 2: Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

 • Chapter 3: Basic Concepts in Sociology

 • Chapter 4: Social Institutions

 • Chapter 5: Culture

 • Chapter 6: Socialization

 • Chapter 7: Social Stratification

 • Chapter 8: Social Change


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