Economy And Occupations Class 10th Geography MHB Solution

Exercise
Question 1.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

India’s per capita income is less than Brazil due to __________________:
A. Low national income

B. Massive population

C. Big family size

D. Low food grain production


Answer:

Per capita income is the average income available per person in the given country. It is equal to the ratio of national income and population. Per capita income = national income/population. As the population grows, the per capita income available to each individual reduces. India is the country with the second largest population. As of 2018, the total population of India is 135.8 crores comprising 17.74% of the global population. On the other hand, the population of Brazil is 20.93 crores which are only 2.76% of the global population. This makes the per capita income of India lesser than that of Brazil even if India has a higher national income.


Question 2.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

The economy of Brazil is mainly dependent on the _____________ activities there.
A. Primary

B. Secondary

C. Tertiary

D. Quaternary


Answer:

The tertiary sector comprises all the types of services rendered in the economy. It consists of all the industries which provide a service such as transportation and finance. Brazil is characterised by a rapidly developing service sector contributing to 71% of its national income. Thus it is the biggest sector in the economy.


Question 3.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

The economies of India and Brazil are of ____________ type.
A. Underdeveloped

B. Developing

C. Developed

D. Highly developed


Answer:

A developing country is a country with a lesser developed economy whose national income is lesser compared to other countries. The threshold to become a developed nation is to have higher industrialisation and a higher national income. Developing countries include both lower and upper-middle-income countries. Even though Brazil is an upper middle-income country and India a lower middle-income country, both are considered as developing economies.


Question 4.

Answer the following questions:

Why has mining not developed in the western parts of Brazil?


Answer:

Brazil is rich in many natural resources like manganese, bauxite, iron ore and coal that contributes largely to its national income. Majority of mining activities is carried out in the eastern part of Brazil. It is highly limited in the western and interior parts because of the dense, impenetrable forests in the Amazon basin. The resources in these parts are highly inaccessible, and knowledge about them is limited. Thus, inaccessibility and lack of knowledge due to forest cover and river basins are the main reasons why resources in the western parts are not highly exploited.



Question 5.

Answer the following questions:

What are the similarities and differences in fishing activities in Brazil and India?


Answer:

Fishing is one of the important economic activities carried out by people both in India and Brazil. The technique and the geographical features have both similarities and differences.


Similarities:



Differences:




Question 6.

Give reasons:

Per capita land availability is more in Brazil as compared to India.


Answer:

Per capita land availability is the total land available per person in the country. It can be calculated as total land area/total population. The per capita land availability in Brazil is higher than that of India. It is because of two reasons. The total land area of Brazil is larger than the total land area of India. Brazil is the fifth largest county in the world while India is the seventh largest country. But the population in India is much higher than that of Brazil. India is the second most populous country in the world while Brazil is in the fifth most populous country. The higher land area and the lesser population is the reason why the per capita land availability is more in Brazil.



Question 7.

Give reasons:

There is a mixed economy in Brazil and India.


Answer:

A mixed economy is characterised by the co-existence of both private sector and public sector. Government and the private sector work together in the economy. In such systems, the government controls the working of the economy, but private sectors can function freely under these restrictions. The mixed economic system is the most popular economic model in current times.



Question 8.

Study the following graph and analyse in short:



Answer:

The graph depicts the contribution of each sector to the national income and the percentage of the population engaged in the respective sectors.


The contribution of the primary sector to national income in both India and Brazil is very less. It is nearly 10% in Brazil and 20% in India. But the percentage of population engaged depicts stark differences. In India, nearly 60% of the population is engaged in the primary sector while only 10% of Brazil’s population work in the primary sector. The contribution of the 60% is limited only to nearly 20%. This is an important reason for the backwardness of the Indian economy.


The contribution of the industrial sector is relatively the same in both the counties. It is nearly 20% in both the economies. The percentage of population engaged is also similar.


The tertiary sector is the main contributor to growth in both countries. It contributes to nearly 60% to the national income in India and 70% in Brazil. But the percentage of the population engaged in this sector is different in both countries. In India, only 30% of the population is engaged in the sector while it is nearly 70% in Brazil. Thus tertiary sector is the leader of growth in both countries.




Intext Questions
Question 1.

Read the following graph and answer the questions:

Gross National Incomes (GNI) from 1960 to 2016 (in million US $)



a. Which country’s national income was highest in 2016 and was it how much?

b. Comparing India and Brazil, which country had a higher national income in 1980?

c. Comparing India and Brazil, which country had a higher income in 2016?

d. Tell the difference between the GNP of Brazil and India in 2016.

e. Calculate the difference between the national incomes of developed and developing countries in 2016.


Answer:

a. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year. In 2016, the national income of the US was the highest. It was nearly 1900 million US dollars.


b. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year. In 1980, Brazil had a higher national income compared to India. The difference between their incomes is only negligible.


c. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year. In 2016, India had a higher national income compared to Brazil. The national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars, while the national income of Brazil is reaching 200 million US dollars.


d. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year. In 2016, India had a higher national income compared to Brazil. The national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars, while the national income of Brazil is reaching 200 million US dollars.


e. National income is the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of the country during a particular period of time, generally within a year. The US is a developed economy while both Brazil and India are developing countries. There is a huge gap between the national incomes of both developed and developing countries. In 2016, the US had a national income of nearly 1900 million US dollars, but the national income of India has just crossed 200 million US dollars. There exists a huge gap between the two amounting to about 1700 million US dollars.



Question 2.

Classify the following activities in by ticking (ΓΌ) in the respective column.



Answer:




Question 3.

Which type of occupations gives a boost to the development of a country’s economy?


Answer:

Economic development occurs when the national income and per capita income of the county rises. The rise in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is due to the increasing economic activities. But a boost in the national income would be with the improvement of the secondary and tertiary sector. The history of all the developed countries shows that their development is by the improvement of both the secondary and the tertiary sector. The primary sector will contribute to the development of the country only in the initial stages. Only with the transition to the secondary sectors like manufacturing and the service sector the economy can achieve growth. To achieve economic development, the economy would have to provide basic necessities to the people and improve their standard of living.



Question 4.

The following images are related to agricultural activities. Identify and write whether they are practised in Brazil or India.