Biology – Important Chapters from Syllabus


Important Question Bank of Biology for Maharashtra HSC Board Exam 2019

1. ‘Genes influence proteins and proteins influence genes.’ Evaluate this statement with reference to the structure and function of genes and proteins.
2. ‘Over the past 400 years, the development of our knowledge of the chemical transformations occurring both inside and outside plants has led to our current understanding of photosynthesis.’ Evaluate this statement with reference to the experiments of TWO named scientists.
3. A student conducted an experiment to investigate the rate of enzyme activity. Relate the understanding gained from performing this experiment to an application of biotechnology.
4. A student conducted an experiment to model the process of accommodation. Describe the experiment and how the first-hand data collected could contribute to an understanding of how accommodation works in human vision.
5. Analyse the impact of modern technologies in the fields of modern medicine and genetic engineering on human evolution.
6. Analyse the impact of the development of the electron microscope on the understanding of chloroplast structure and function.
7. Analyse the impact of the Human Genome Project on the development of technologies which benefit society.
8. Ant diuretic hormone (ADH) is a protein produced by cells in the hypothalamus. The AVP gene codes for the production of ADH. Outline the steps to show how a mutation in the AVP gene could result in changes in the ADH protein.
9. Assess how our understanding of the path of a sound wave through the ear has led to the development of technologies that assist hearing.
10. Biological theories are always provisional in nature and change in the light of new evidence. Give reasons.
11. Compare mechanisms in the human body for detection and perception of a range of frequencies in visual and auditory communication.
12. Construct a dichotomous key to classify primates into four groups: prosimians, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, apes.
13. Construct a flow chart to show how an animal with a diploid number of 32 chromosomes can be cloned and how the clone can be verified. Include reference to chromosome number in each step.
14. Construct a flow chart to summarise the main steps and products of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
15. Contrast the distribution and function of cone cells and rod cells in the human eye.
16. Describe an experiment that could be used to test van Helmond’s observation that soil is not primarily responsible for a plant’s change in mass.
17. Describe how the lens of the eye changes its shape in order to focus on near and far objects.
18. Explain an advantage and a disadvantage of EITHER the product OR process of a specific animal biotechnology.
19. Explain how both genotype and phenotype influence the inheritance of genes and natural selection in this population.
20. Explain how polymorphisms have enabled humans to survive in their environment. Use examples in your answer.
21. Explain how selective breeding has resulted in a series of changes in an agricultural species.
22. Explain how the energy liberated in the light-dependent reaction is stored and used in cells.
23. Explain how the human larynx produces sounds of different pitch.
24. Explain how TWO different methods used to treat drinking water reduce the risk of infection.
25. Explain ONE benefit and ONE limitation of suppressing the immune system in organ transplant patients.
26. Explain the relationship between advances in scientific knowledge of cell chemistry and modern uses of biotechnology.
27. Explain the role of isolation in the process of evolution.
28. Explain the structure and behaviour of chromosomes in the first division of meiosis. Include detailed reference to the model.
29. Explain, using TWO examples, the evolutionary significance of polymorphism.
30. Models of human evolution continue to change as a result of work done by individual scientists and advances in technology. Give reasons.
31. What is the difference between polymorphism and clinal gradation?
32. With the breakdown of proteins, animals produce ammonia, a nitrogenous waste product that must be removed. Direct removal of ammonia requires the excretion of large amounts of water. Explain how both terrestrial mammals and insects conserve water while excreting nitrogenous wastes.

Biology Important Question Bank 2018
Define geitonogamy and xenogamy. Give advantages of self-pollination and cross pollination.
Define vegetative propagation. Differentiate between ‘stem tuber’ and ‘tuberous root’.
Define ‘evolution’. Give the principles of Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Mention any ‘one’ objection to it.
Describe characteristics of genetic code.
Describe diagrammatic representation of age structure showing declining population.
Describe emasculation and bagging along with a diagram.
Describe hypertension. Add a note on angina pectoris.
Describe steady population with the help of a pyramid.
Describe the experiment of Hershey and Chase to prove that DNA is the genetic material.
Describe the process of budding in hydra.
Describe the ultrastructure of chloroplast. Add a note on the significance of photosynthesis.
Differentiate between anemophily and entomophily.
Differentiate between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation.
Draw a neat and well labelled diagram showing T.S. of ovary and describe the menstrual cycle in human female.
Draw a neat labelled diagram of the hair pin model of t-RNA.
Draw a neat labelled diagram showing steps of PCR.
Enlist the various types of cancer.
Explain how dichogamy favours cross pollination.
Explain how suspension culture is prepared from callus.
Explain replication of bacteriophage with the help of a suitable diagram.
Give applications of a vaccine.
Give schematic representation of carbon cycle.
Give the adverse effects of opioids, cannabinoids and morphines on human health.
Give the economic importance of fisheries.
Give the economic importance of ‘fisheries’.
Give the floral adaptations for chiropterophily.
How kidney functions are regulated? Add a note on kidney transplantation.
Sketch and label V.S. of mature anatropous ovule.
Sketch and label phases in oogenesis.
Sketch and label seminiferous tubule as seen in the T.S. of testis.
Sketch and label structure of nephron.
Sketch and label the ‘structure of HIV’.
Sketch and label ‘L.S. of human kidney’.
Sketch and label ‘human male reproductive system’.
State and explain the ‘Law of independent Assortment’ with a suitable example.
What are biocontrol agents? Mention any two groups of biocontrol agents and their hosts.
What is respiratory quotient (RQ)? Why RQ in anaerobic respiration is infinite?
What is sex linkage? Explain the inheritance of colour blindness and haemophilia with suitable charts.
What is tissue culture? Describe the methodology of tissue culture.
What is ‘biopatent’? Give examples.
What is ‘double fertilization’? Describe it with the help of a neat and well labelled diagram. Also state its importance.
What is ‘photorespiration’? Explain it with diagrammatic representation.1
With the help of a chart, explain the method of sex determination in honeybees.
With the help of a labelled diagram of lateral view of cerebrum, describe its structure and give any two functions of cerebrum.
With the help of a neat and labelled diagram explain VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae)
With the help of a well labelled diagram describe the internal structure of human heart.
With the help of a well labelled diagram describe the internal structure of human heart.
With the help of diagrammatic representation, explain the process of gametogenesis.
With the help of schematic representation explain Kreb’s cycle.
Write a note on desert adaptations.

‘There is a hole in the ozone layer’. What do you understand by this?