Production And Employment Class 10th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 10th Social Studies AP Board Solution

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Question 1.

Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:

(i) Employment in the service sector______increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not)

(ii) Workers in the______sector do not produce goods. (service / agricultural)

(iii) Most of the workers in the______sector enjoy job security. (organised / unorganised)

(iv) A ______proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small)

(v) Cotton is a ______ product and cloth is a _________ product. [natural / manufactured]


Answer:

(i) Employment in the service sector has increased to the same extent as production.


Explanation: The share of service sector in GDP is 27% whereas of agriculture is 17%.


(ii) Workers in the service sector do not produce goods.


Explanation: Service sector is the sector that deals with providing services like hotels, hospitals, transport, communication, etc. Here no goods are being produced.


(iii) Most of the workers in the organised sector enjoy job security. (organized/unorganized)


Explanation: the organized sector is one where there is a large number of employers, they are given regular payments, the duration of working is fixed. Whereas the unorganized sector is completely opposite to this like the laborers working in construction site etc.


(iv) A large proportion of laborers in India are working in the unorganized sector. (large / small)


Explanation: Due to unemployment and a lack of skilled labors the number of people working in the unorganized sector is large.


(v) Cotton is a natural product and cloth is a manufactured product.



Question 2.

Choose the most appropriate answer:

(a) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in _______ sector.

(i) primary

(ii) secondary

(iii) tertiary

(iv) information technology

(b) GDP is the total value of _____________ produced during a particular year.

(i) all goods and services

(ii) all final goods and services

(iii) all intermediate goods and services

(iv) all intermediate and final goods and services

(c) In terms of GDP the share of service sector in 2009-10 was

(i) between 20 to 30 per cent

(ii) between 30 to 40 per cent

(iii) between 50 to 60 per cent

(iv) 70 per cent


Answer:

(a) (i) Primary


As in the primary sector, the natural materials are the raw products, and it is processed to get the final good.


(b) (ii) All the final goods and services.


Gross domestic product means all the final goods and services produced within the territory of a nation irrespective of the nationality of the person or company.


(c) (iii) between 50 to 60 per cent


Gross domestic product means all the final goods and services produced within the territory of a nation irrespective of the nationality of the person or company.


The share of the service sector is between 50% to 60%



Question 3.

Find the odd one out and give reasons:

(i) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer

(ii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable


Answer:

(i) Vegetable Vendor.

(ii) Cobbler


As this the only profession among these that do not require any formal education.



Question 4.

Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and services sectors is useful? Explain how.


Answer:

The classification such as primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are useful in determining the which economic activity contributes how much in the economy.

If any sectors are not contributing much, then the government could make some reforms in that sector to boost the production.


In this way, the classification helps in determining the economic activities.



Question 5.

For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined?

Discuss.


Answer:

Employment and GDP are important as they determine the size of a nation’s economy. A nation could develop only when the rate of employability is high, and GDP of that particular year is also high.



Question 6.

How is the service sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.


Answer:

Service sector is one that provided services rather than goods. In this sector, no goods are produced. In recent years the service sector has become the most important sector in GDP contribution.

Services compromises of:


1. Community, Social and personal services: These includes services like health, education, defense, etc.


2. Finance, insurance, and real estate: Services like banks, Insurance, brokerage, etc.


3. Trade, hotels, transport communication services.


Other sectors like Agriculture, Industries are involved in the production of goods.



Question 7.

What do you understand by underemployment? Explain with one example each from the urban and rural areas.


Answer:

When people are employed but are allotted lesser work than their potential is not utilised properly. Example: in urban areas laborers are in mass searching for a job every day. Many of them do not find work every day. While many like street vendor spend the whole day working but earn very little. This is called as underemployment.

In rural areas the agriculture sector is overburdened. There are a lot of people ready to work on farms. So even if some people move out of the farm, the production will not be affected.



Question 8.

The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety, and health. Explain with examples.


Answer:

The unorganized sectors comprise of small-scale enterprises, where working hours are not fixed. It has daily wages and there is no job security. Example construction workers, people working in small workshops. Whereas the organized sector is opposite to it, it has job security, fixed wages. Example: factories, industries.

The people working in unorganized sectors mostly belong to the vulnerable section of society like the women, SC/STs, small and marginal farmers, artisans, etc. These farmers need to support by providing them with seeds, credit, agricultural equipment, selling, and receiving minimum wages.


The laborers working in urban areas in industries, factories and especially the women who face social discriminations many times need to be protected by the government.


As these workers get minimum wages and they find it hard in surviving, so facilities like living, health etc must also be looked by the government. They must get a facility like free health checkups in government hospitals.


These measures are necessary to be taken as this would lead to both social and economic development.



Question 9.

A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked are in the unorganized sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997- 1998) was Rs 6000 crores. Out of this, Rs 3200 crores was generated in the organized sector. Present this data as a table. What are the ways of generating more employment in the city? (AS3)


Answer:


The unorganized sectors comprise of small-scale enterprises, where working hours are not fixed, it has daily wages, there is no job security. Example construction workers, people working in small workshops. Whereas the organized sector is opposed to it; it has job security, fixed wages. Example: factories, industries.


The employment could be increased in the city by providing skills to the people and ensuring that after acquiring the skills they must be employed. Example Skills like tailoring, driving, cooking could be taught to these rural people who work on mere wages and then providing them with a job in their respective skilled sector.


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