Challenges To And Restoration Of The Congress System Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?

(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.

(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.

(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.

(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.


Answer:

Statement (a) is Correct: The Congress did manage to get a majority in the Lok Sabha, but with its lowest tally of seats and share of votes since 1952.


Statement (b) is wrong: Congress Won Lok Sabha but lost Assembly election.


Statement (c) is Correct: The elections of 1967 brought into picture the phenomenon of coalitions. Since no single party had got majority, various non- Congress parties came together to form joint legislative parties that supported non-Congress governments.


Statement (d) is wrong: after the 1967 elections, the Congress retained power at the Centre but with a reduced majority and lost power in many States.



Question 2.

Match the following:


Answer:

a) Syndicate: A group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress. Syndicate was the informal name given to a group of Congress leaders who were in control of the party’s organisation. It was led by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and then the president of the Congress party


b) Defection: An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket s/he has been elected. Another important feature of the politics after the 1967 election was the role played by defections in the making and unmaking of governments in the States.


c) Slogan: A catchy phrase that attracts public attention. Indira Hatao, Garibi Hatao are some famous phrase.


d) Anti-Congressism: parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies.



Question 3.

Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?

(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan

(b) Indira Hatao!

(c) Garibi Hatao!


Answer:

(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan : Lal Bahadur Shastri


Shastri’s famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’, during war with china and the situation of drought and food crisis that prevailed.


(b) Indira Hatao! : Jayaprakash Narayan


The opposition of congress had only one agenda to remove Indira.


(c) Garibi Hatao! : Indira Gandhi


A slogan given by Indira Gandhi on removing poverty.



Question 4.

Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct?

The Grand Alliance …..

(a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.

(b) had a clear political and ideological programme.

(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.


Answer:

(a) Was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.


All the major non-communist, non- Congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance known as the Grand Alliance.



Question 5.

How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.

(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president

(b) Listen to the majority group

(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue

(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party


Answer:

(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president


Advantage: If the members of a group follows the footsteps of the leader then unity and discipline would be maintained in the party.


Shortcoming: The leader would run his monopoly and would take the decision without anyone’s else consultation, so the inner democracy may get weakned.


(b) Listen to the majority group


Advantage: If the party listens to the majority then there would be confidence in the party and the group gets strengthened.


Shortcomings: If the group listens to the majority then there would be disruption in the party because then everyone would try to please leader with their idea by dominating over others.


(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue


Advantage: It gives chance to everyone to take part in decision making.


Shortcoming: It paves way for the members to vote for opposition party. This may prove fatal for the party.


(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party


Advantage: The novice and less experienced could get insight into the issue and derive to a solution in a better way.


Shortcoming: If the senior are only consulted then there hold into the party will get strengthened.



Question 6.

State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.

(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party

(b) Split within the Congress party

(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups

(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties

(e) Internal differences within the Congress party


Answer:

The main reason for the defeat was split in the congress.


a) This is not the reason because there were many charismatic leader in the party including Indira Gandhi.


b) This is the main reason cited for the failure of the defeat. There arose Syndicate Vs Indira situation and these syndicate named group were but from within Congress, who wanted Indira to follow their advice.


c) This could be a reason but not the foremost. There were many regional parties which divided the vote bank.


d) No, there was no such unity among the non congress parties.


e) Internal differences in congress itself gave rise to split.



Question 7.

What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?


Answer:

The factors for the popularity of Indira were:


1. Socialist propaganda like Garibi Hatao i.e. remove poverty became popular.


2. She campaigned for land reform legislation and land ceiling legislation.


3. The crisis in East Pakistan to establish independent Bangladesh gained her popularity.


4. She turned out to be a mass leader as a protector of poor and underpriviledged.



Question 8.

What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?


Answer:

1. Syndicate was the informal name given to a group of Congress leaders who were in control of the party’s organisation.


2. It was led by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and then the president of the Congress party.


3. These leaders expected Indira Gandhi to follow their advise.


Role of Syndicate:


1. The Syndicate had played a role in the installation of Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister by ensuring her election as the leader of the parliamentary party.


2. After Split there was one congress led by syndicate and other by Indira.



Question 9.

Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.


Answer:

1. Despite Indira Gandhi’s reservation, syndicate nominated Neelam sanjeeva Reddy as a presidential candidate.


2. Indira Gandhi retariated this by nominating V V Giri then vice president as president candidate as independent.


3. V V Giri won due to diplomatic efforts and syndicate nominated candidate was defeated.


4. This led to split in the congress.


The mere power differences got turned into differences in ideologies and hence split in Congress.



Question 10.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:

…Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly cerntalised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…..But this… could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology ……. Into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…… During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died….. — Sudipta Kaviraj

a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?

b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?

c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?


Answer:

(a) Nehru led the party into federal and democratic manner while Indira Gandhi converted the party into centralised and undemocratic.


(b) Because there was change in the nature of congress, including electoral discourage and the use of various slogans to suppress the other.


(c) The change in ideologies of congress gave rise to several regional parties and moreover the split also added fire to the flame.


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