The Crisis Of Democratic Order Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are

correct or incorrect.

(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.

(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.

(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.

(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.

(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.


Answer:

(a) Incorrect


Explanation – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi who had President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed proclaim a state of emergency declared across the country. Officially issued by the under Article 352(1) of the constitution.


(b) Correct


Explanation – During national emergency many Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens were suspended. According the constitution Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended. During the emergency declared by Indira Gandhi the government decided to suspend even those two rights by dispensing with Habeas Corpus.


(c) Incorrect


Explanation – Emergency by Mrs. Gandhi was declared because of the prevailing “internal disturbance”, economic conditions were another factor. The emergency was in effect from 25 June 1975 until its withdrawal on 21 March 1977.


(d) Correct


Explanation – Many leaders on the opposition parties of Jan Sangh, Bhartiya Lok Dal, Socialist Party, etc were arrested during emergency. Some of the leaders were Arun Jaitely, Ravi Shankar Prasad and Shushma Swaraj. They were arrested under different protest and disagreement with the Indira government in emergency.


(e) Correct


Explanation – Along with the Entire congress party the CPI whole heartedly supported the proclamation of the emergency, and also the Soviet Union described it as a “blow to a right-wing plot”.



Question 2.

Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency

(a) The call for ‘Total Revolution.

(b) The Railway Strike of 1974

(c) The Naxalite Movement

(d) The Allahabad High Court verdict

(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report


Answer:

(c) The Naxalite Movement


Reason – The Naxalite moment is not concerned with emergency yet it plays a very important role in Indian politics. It was the most important peasant movement in the post-independence movement. A peasant uprising took place in 1967 in the Naxalbari police station area of Darjeeling hills district in West Bengal. This movement was started under the local leadership of the Marxist Party



Question 3.

Match the following


Answer:

(a) Total Revolution – Bihar Movement


• The Bihar Movement was initiated by students and led by Socialist JP Narayan. He called for “total revolution” asking students, peasants and labour organizations to non-violently transform Indian society. It was against misrule and corruption in the government of Bihar. Later Total Revolution turned against the central government.


(b) Garibi Hatao –Indira Gandhi


• Garibi Hatao was the theme and slogan of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections. This slogan gave her an independent national support based on local and urban poor. This slogan initiated anti-poverty programs for the poor. This made her gain the both political worth and political weight.


(c) Student’s Protest –Jayprakash Narayan


• On 18 February 1974, the Patna University students union organized a convention which invited student leaders from the whole state. They formed Bihar Chhatra Sangharsh Samiti to spread the agitation. Their demands were related to education and food in hostel. In March-April 1974, a student led agitation in Bihar received the support of Socialist Jayaprakash Narayan against the Bihar government.


(d) Railway Strike – George Fernandes


• George Fernandes was the president of All India Railwaymen’s Federation. He led the railway strike commenced on 8 may 1974. It was a strike by workers of Indian Railways. The strike was held to demand a rise in pay scale, which had remained stagnant over many years.



Question 4.

What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?


Answer:

There were several reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980, which defeated Janata Party and again Congress led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats, these were the following :-


1. Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and common programme. They were busy arguing with one another and didn’t direct their policies together.


2. Janata Party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by congress. They lacked in creating a stronger unified alternate.


3. There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.


4. Charan Singh government was formed due to support of congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan Singh government within four months.



Question 5.

The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?


Answer:

In March 1977, Janata Party government was formed at the centre. In may 1977 the Janata Party government appointed a commission of inquiry headed by the justice J.C Shah, retired chief justice of the supreme court of India, to inquire, “into several aspects of allegation of abuse authority, excess malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of emergency proclaimed on the 25june, 1975”.


The commission performed to examine various evidence to give testimony, even including Indira Gandhi to appear before the commission, but she refused to respond to any questions.


Finding of the Shah Commission:-


a. Found Many ‘excesses’ committed during emergency


b. Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh people were arrested.


c. The press censorship took place without any prior legal sanctions.


d. The general manager of Delhi Power Supply cooperation received verbal orders from the office of the LT. Governor of the Delhi to cut the electricity of all the newspaper, press at 2 am, on 26 June 1975.



Question 6.

What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?


Answer:

There were several reasons that government gave for declaring a National Emergency in 1975. The main reason they emphasised on were:-


1. Economic Crisis – War took place between India and Pakistan in December in 1971 and Pakistan was defeated in the war. But this war had put a heavy strain on India economy. In 1974 prices increases over 30 percent, the failure of monsoon in 1972-73 led to the downfall in agricultural production. Poverty and unemployment was very high. Hardship of masses increased and there was general atmosphere of dissatisfaction among the masses.


2. Gujarat Movement – In January 1974, students in Gujarat started an agitation against 20% hike in hostel food in the ID College of engineering. The moment was supported by all the opposition parties and demanded the reign of the Chief Minister of Gujarat. President rule was imposed in Gujarat ultimately assembly elections were held in June 1975. The congress was defeated in the elections.


3. Bihar Movement – This movement was started by the students against the misrule, unemployment, rising process, corruption, etc. Later on this movement was led by the Great Socialist Jaya Prakash Narayan. The movement of JP.Narayan is also known as ‘Total Revolution’.


4. Allahabad high court judgement invalidating Smt. Indira Gandhi’s 1971 elections – On 12 June 1975 Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High court passed a judgement declaring Indira Gandhi election to the Lok sabha, invalid and made her ineligible to occupy her seat for 6 years


On June 24, Supreme Court vocational judge Justice Krishna Iyer granted a stay that allowed Mrs. Gandhi to function as the Prime Minister on a condition that she should not draw a salary and speak or vote in parliament until the case was decided. This was considered the most important reason which led to declaration of emergency.


5. Demonstration in Delhi Ramleela Ground by all opposition parties. The opposition parties organized massive demonstration at the ground, JP. Narayan Nation-wide Satyagraha for her resignation and asked the army, police and the government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders of the government.



Question 7.

The 1977 elections for the first time saw the Opposition coming into power at the Centre. What would you consider as the reasons for this development?


Answer:

The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming into power at the centre, the following factors were responsible for the defeat of the congress and the development of the opposition:-


1. Imposition of the internal emergency – for the first time in the history of free India, internal emergency was imposed. Immediately after the imposition of the emergency, the leaders of all the opposition parties including JP Narayan were thrown behind the bars. The real motive behind the declaration of the emergency was to remain in power and to extend the tenure.


2. Excess during emergency – the basic liberties of people were suppressed. No individuals or party could utter word against the imposition of emergency or the excess committed by the government.


3. Imposition of Black acts like MISA – during the emergency, the various black acts were passed by the Indian government. People suspected of anything against the government were arrested and put in jail without any trial under MISA. The lives, liberty, respect and property of no person was considered safe.


4. Constitutional amendments – Indira government lowered the position of the judiciary through the 42nd amendment. In fact judiciary was subordinated to the executive, the scope of judicial review was limited to a great excess.


5. Compulsory Sterilization – at the instance of the Sanjay Gandhi, the various states particularly Haryana resorted to the compulsory sterilization to a great extent.


6. Rising prices – the condition of Indian people became pitiable due to the continuous rise in prices people were very sore with the congress government over this issue.


7. Availability of alternate leadership – JP Narayan emerged as a leader of Indian unrest. He was the most respected leader after Nehru. People came to realise that they can fall back on him after dislodging the congress from power.



Question 8.

Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity.

• Effects on civil liberties for citizens.

• Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary

• Functioning of Mass Media

• Working of the Police and Bureaucracy.


Answer:

• In June 1975 during emergency, protest, strikes, public agitations were disallowed. The government made large scale arrest under preventive detention. Arrested political person could not challenge arrest grounds to even under Habeas Corpus petition. Fundamental rights given under article 19 were automatically suspended throughput the country. In April 1976, finally it was proved that the government could take away citizen’s right to life and liberty by overruling of the high court under supreme courts and accept government plea.


• The president by order can also suspend the right to move the court to enforce any other fundamental rights. All proceedings pending in any court for the enforcement of the rights so mentioned may remain suspended for the period during which proclamation is in force or for short period. The parliament brought many new changes in constitution which declared that the election of Prime Minister, President, and Vice President could not be challenged in the court. 42nd amendment was passed to bring various changes in the constitution.


• Press censorship was banned and the functioning of the mass media like freedom of press and newspapers were need to get prior approval before publishing of any of their material. In emergency protests, strikes and public agitation were banned or had put to halt. Various basic and essential fundamental rights were suspended. Kannada writer Shivavarma Karnath awarded with Padma Bhushan and Padmashri writer Fanishwarnath Renu returned their awards in protest against suspension of democracy. Some press and media used to work underground and circulated pamphlets while newspapers like Statesman and Indian Express left blank spaces where the news items were censored.


• During emergency police and bureaucracy are entirely committed to the executive. They followed the orders of the executive. Federation was changed into unitary form of government. Strikes were banned. Large number of arrest was made by the police without trials.



Question 9.

In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India? Elaborate your answer with examples.


Answer:

On the night of 25 June, 1975 President of India declared emergency on the advice on the Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi. Emergency affected the party system in many ways: -


1. The governing party had all the powers the leadership dared to suspend the democratic process. They still thought to continue their domination over the state.


2. A series of tension and difference arose between institution based democracy and democracy based on impulsive popular participation.


3. It was attributed to incapability of party system to include aspirations of the people. People started looking for alternatives in a new party.


4. The imposition of emergency made the opposition political leaders realise that they will simply disintegrate if they do not stand united against the authoritarian style of Indira Gandhi. Hence the leaders of various parties that came in contact with one another in jails resolved top form one party that is Janata Party.


5. The formation of Janata Party ensured that non-congress votes would not be divided. The 1977 elections proved referendum on emergency experience and masses rejected the congress party.


6. The elections of 1977 finally brought an end to the one party dominance system and gave birth to the system of Coalition government. With more than a single party in power and working together in the government.



Question 10.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee

(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?

(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?

(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?


Answer:

(a) The imposition of emergency in 1977 and the crisis among the ruling party made the system in India look like a two-party system.


(b) The two parties that mainly existed were:


1. The Congress party.


2. Non-Congress party.


It is described as close to two-party system because this period saw the emergence of another party apart from Congress i.e. Janata Party and the end of dominance of a single party rule in India


(c) The main causes for the split in Congress the election of Presidential candidate in 1969. and in Janata Party the tensions among three main party leaders: Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram for the leadership in 1979 led to the split.


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