Challenges Of Nation Building Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?

a. Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory.”

b. Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.

c. East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.

d. The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.


Answer:

The statement d is incorrect


Explanation: During partition areas where the Muslims were in majority was made as Pakistan. The rest was to stay as India. Earlier the plan of transfer was not included in the partition plan but afterwards the minorities in both the states were treated ruthlessly and were killed, so unwillingly they had to leave their homes and fled away to their respective religion majority states.


Rest of the statements are correct. Factual



Question 2.

Match the principles with the instances:


Answer:

(a)-(ii); (b)-(iv); (c)-(i); (d)-(iii)

1. Pakistan and Bangladesh – After August 1947 i.e. partition of Pakistan and India, Pakistan was further separated as west and East Pakistan and both were separated by India in the midst.


2. India and Pakistan – India consisted of not one but two ‘people’, Hindus and Muslims. That is why it demanded Pakistan, a separate country for the Muslims.


3. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh- Jharkhand was carved out from Bihar while Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, the reason given were on the basis of easier administration and on the political grounds.


Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand – Both the states are on hilly region but separate in many ways, first being different native language in both the states.



Question 3.

Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States.

(a) Junagadh (b) Manipur (c) Mysore (d) Gwalior


Answer:


(a) Junagadh- A princely state in un-partitioned India, presently in the state of Gujarat was acceded into Indian territory after a plebiscite confirmed people’s desire to join India.


(b) Manipur- It was a princely state and was acceded into India after a lot of chaos held between the parties in the legislative assembly on Manipur.


(c) Mysore- This was in Hyderabad a princely state too, which was acceded into the Indian territory after a fight between Nizams of Hyderbad and Indian Military forces.


(d) Gwalior-This was also a princely state during British Raj and after Independence became the part of Indian territory.



Question 4.

Here are two opinions –

Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”

Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”

What is your own opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?


Answer:

British India was divided into what were called the British Indian Provinces and the Princely States. The British Indian Provinces were directly under the control of the British government. On the other hand, several large and small states ruled by princes, called the Princely States, enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs as long as they accepted British supremacy.


1. The princely States earlier wanted to be independent, but after further persuasion by Sardar Patel it was decided by most of the princely states whose borders were contiguous with new Indian territory to be part of Independent India.


2. Though this move was a forced one but it was the need of that hour as without accession to these states it would have formed a nation within nation and would have paved way for further confliction.


3. Most of the princely rulers signed the accession except in states like Hyderabad and Manipur where people agitated.



Question 5.

Read the following very different statements made in August 1947 –

“Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat. you have to be more humble and forbearing now there will be no end to your being tested.” — M.K Gandhi

“…India will awake to a life of freedom. We step out from the old to the new…we end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity…” — Jawaharlal Nehru

Spell out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?


Answer:

According to M.K Gandhi there are several challenges to nation building like keeping the nation united, Maintaining the democracy and ensuring development and well being of the society. And the problem in nation building arises more if the leaders of that respective nation are not humble and forbearing in solving the problems. Though India was independent but there were several challenges in its path like handeling the uncertain partition and tragic transfer of the people and providing rehabilitation to them.

According to Jawaharlal Nehru freedom of India was just a step, there were problems like poverty, unemployment and establishing democracy. And freedom has given them opportunity to solve the above problems.


Both the statements more or less spell the same meaning but the statement of M.K Gandhi appeal more to me in the following ways:


1. Because he advises leader to be wakeful on the seat of crown.


2. He advises them to humble and forbearing, and to get carried away by the powers they have got as the seat of power is a nasty thing.



Question 6.

What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular?

Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?


Answer:

Reasons for keeping India secular:

1. After the partition of India there was tragic transfer of people between the two nation, and not all the Muslims left India, there were some lived in minority. So to ensure them right to live with dignity without any discrimination on the basis of religion, Nehru proposed the idea of Secular India.


2. He believed that everyone irrespective of religion, must enjoy security and rights.


No, The reasons for secular India were neither ethical nor sentimental but prudential as India’s secularism cherished long term goals like equality, liberty and fraternity.



Question 7.

Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.


Answer:

The two major differences between eastern (Bengal) and Western (Punjab) regions can be summed up as follows:


1. These regions were the Muslim majority provinces to be joined. Hence, it was decided that new country Pakistan will comprise two territories i.e. West and East Pakistan.


2. Secondly, there was a problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in areas of Pakistan and Muslims on the Indian side



Question 8.

What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?


Answer:

The task of States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was to look into the question of redrawing of the boundaries of state.

In 1955, after nearly 2 years of study, the Commission recommended that India's state boundaries should be reorganised to form 16 states and 3 union territories.


Recommendation:


1. The Indian Union was to consist of 16 States as against the existing 27 and three centrally and ministered territories.


2. The most salient recommendation was that the boundaries of state must reflect the boundaries of different languages.



Question 9.

It is said that the nation is to a large extent an “imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.


Answer:

A large body of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular state or territory is called nation.


Features that determine India as nation:


1. Since India is a democratic country from the very beginning of its Independence and greatest feature of democracy is diversity with dignity i.e. accepting diverse cultures but and ensuring them life with dignity


2. India follows parliamentary system where every citizen of the nation has right to choose their leader


3. In India cultural history of every religion is preserved equally


4. In India there is no national language but 26 Official language



Question 10.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

“In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale – geographic as well as demographic

– was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.” — Ramachandra Guha

(a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.

(b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?

(c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?


Answer:

commonalities between India and Soviet Union:

1. (a) Commonalities between India and Soviet Union:


(i) Both the nations were shaped on the basis of religion majority. Example formation of India and Pakistan


(ii) To work for the welfare of the nation many technological and economic reforms were brought in both nations.


2. (b) Dissimilarities:


(i) Soviet Union was divided into 15 independent republics/countries to be disintegrated. (ii) India maintained its unity and integrity even among diversified nature of states and peoples without any more division.


(c) The Indian experiment worked better to promote linguistic and cultural plurality without affecting unity and integrity of the nation though India adopted some diplomatic measures to make country united.


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