Era Of One-party Dominance Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the correct option to fill in the blanks.

(a) The First General Elections in 1952 involved simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and …………………. (The President of India/ State Assemblies/ Rajya Sabha/ the Prime Minister)

(b) The party that won the second largest number of Lok Sabha seats in the first elections was the…………………. (Praja Socialist Party/Bharatiya Jana Sangh/ Communist Party of India/Bharatiya Janata Party)

(c) One of the guiding principles of the ideology of the Swatantra Party was…………………. (Working class interests/ protection ofPrincely States / economy free from State control / Autonomy of States within the Union)


Answer:

(a) State Assemblies


Explanation- Simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and state assemblies helped cubing the expenditure for both the government and the political parties. It also made parties come out with national and local issue and it made easier for the voters to choose the suitable candidate.


(b) Communist Party of India


Explanation- Congress won 364 of the 489 seats rising as the largest party in the first elections. Communist Party of India emerged as the second largest party that won 16 seats in the Lok Sabha.


(c) Economy free from state control


Explanation- the Swatantra Party wanted less control of the government and less involvement of them in controlling the economy. They longed for freedom from government in economy and in state control.



Question 2.

Match the following leaders listed in List A with the parties in List B.


Answer:

(a) S.A Dange – iv) Communist Party of the India


• S.A Dange was among the notable leader of the CPI.


(b) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee – i) Bharatiya Jana Sangh


• Shyama Prasad Mukherjee formed the Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951; he was the founder-president of the party.


(c) Minoo Masani – ii) Swatantra Party


• Minoo Masani was an old congressman who led the Swatantra Party along with other leaders. The party stood out from others in its stand on economic issue.


(d) Asoka Mehta – iii) Praja Socialist Party


• Ashoka Mehta was a founder member of the Socialist Party. He was the president for the Praja Socialist Party during 1959-1963.



Question 3.

Four statements regarding one- party dominance are given below. Mark each of them as true or false.

(a) One-party dominance is rooted in the absence of strong alternative political parties.

(b) One-party dominance occurs because of weak public opinion.

(c) One-party dominance is linked to the nation’s colonial past.

(d) One-party dominance reflects the absence of democratic ideals in a country.


Answer:

(a) True


Explanation- There were many well organized other parties, but Congress got the ‘first off the blocks’ advantage. It had an organizational network from top to local, from left to right. It had an inclusive nature, all these factors contribute for its domination.


(b) False


Explanation- One party dominance has many reasons to occur expect the weal public opinion because, a party can only be dominating when it incorporates the plight, opinion and needs of the people. People choose the party as their representatives which later establish its dominance.


(c) True


Explanation- The colonial past is important to remind the dominance of the party that played an important role in revolt and liberations for the nation. For example: Indian congress was seen as inheritor of the national movement in India.


(d) False


Explanation- Prevalence of one Party dominance does not reflect the ideals in a country as in the case of Indian congress democratic ideals remained intact and it evolved. Here many parties contested elections yet the congress managed to win the elections.


Here many parties’ contested elections yet the congress managed to win the election



Question 4.

If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist Party of India had formed the government after the first election, in which respects would the policies of the government have been different? Specify three differences each for both the parties.


Answer:

Bharatiya Jana Sangh and the communist party were the two strong and competitive parties, and if either of them would have formed the government after the first elections, the government policies would have been entirely different.


Bharatiya Jana Sangh:


The policies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh were based on the principles as follows:


a. It replaced secular concept by the ideology of one country, one culture and one nation.


b. No cultural and educational rights as this party opposed the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities.


c. It focused on the reunifying of India and Pakistan under the concept of Akhand Bharat.


Communist Party of India:


Communist Party of India would have been different on the principles as follows:


a. It worked for proportional representation in the government.


b. This party followed communist ideology in various policies.


c. It emphasised on a control over electronic mass media by an autonomous body or corporation.



Question 5.

In what sense was the Congress an ideological coalition? Mention the various ideological currents present within the Congress.


Answer:

The congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking upper class people and urban elite. Its social base widened after the civil disobedience movement. It brought various diverse groups together like the presents, dwellers, workers, and middle class. Gradually its leadership expanded beyond upper class with rural people. All these incorporated different ideologies that were brought together.

Ideologically, the Congress took root and came to political power not as a party but as a movement for independence and reform. All types of people with diverse Interests became the members of the Congress party like the conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates and the rights and the left with all other shades of the centre.


Congress became a platform for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.


Ideological currents present within the Congress:


In pre-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.


Some of these like “Congress Socialist Party “later separated from the Congress and became on opposition party.



Question 6.

Did the prevalence of a ‘one party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics?


Answer:

No, the prevalence of one, party dominance system did not affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics because:

a. The key role of congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others. The congress was already a very well organized party and by the time other parties could think of a strategy the congress had already begun with its campaign.


b. The congress accommodated diversified interest, religion, belief and aspirations to strengthen democracy. It developed itself into a ‘rainbow’ and an ‘umbrella’ organization.


c. Despite being taken place of free and fair elections, congress won elections in the same manner again and again due to several factors.


d. Congress party consisted of various factions inside itself, based on ideological consideration that never taught together or went out of congress. It had tolerance and management within the party.


e. Hence, on the basis of above mentioned criterion, it t can be concluded that congress strengthened its ideals of democracy and held the unity and integrity of the country.



Question 7.

What would you consider as the main differences between Mexico and India under one party domination?


Answer:

India is not the only country who has experienced the one party dominance system. One such county is Mexico. In Mexico Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) exercised its power for almost 6 decades. Over a period of time the party was able to capture the organization and thereby the government.

There was a difference between one party domination in India and Mexico. In Mexico, this was a one party system only not dominance because:-


a. In India, the congress party dominated on behalf of popular consensus but Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled on behalf of the people.


b. In India, free and fair elections took place, where the losing the elections was also fair but in Mexico, elections were based on Malpractices and were rigid, dominated by PRI.


c. in India, the opposition contested elections to win and form a government. But in Mexico other parties existed only to give ruling party greater legitimacy.


d. The one party dominance in India was a phase but in Mexico it took a different turn and changed into ‘the perfect dictatorship ‘but later the party lost in Presidential elections held in 2000.


In our opinion one party dominance like India is better because this sort of dominance:


a. Accommodates social diversities


b. Encourage large number of participations.


c. Ensure democratic spirit as well maintains the same.


d. Tolerate respect even for the opposition.


e. Ongoing development process and constant change.



Question 8.

Bring out three differences each between Socialist parties and the Communist party and between Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party.


Answer:

Difference between socialist parties and communist party:

a. The socialist believed in the ideology of democratic socialism whereas the communist party worked mainly within the fold of the congress party.


b. The socialist believed in peaceful constitutional methods, while communist party believed in peaceful as well as violent methods.


c. The Socialist criticized the congress for favouring capitalist and landlord and ignoring the working class and farmers whereas the communist party believed in the welfare of the workers and the peasants.


Difference between Bhartiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party:


a. Bhartiya Jana Sangh believed in the ideology of the ‘one party, one nation, one culture and one national ideal’: on the other hand, the Swatantra party believed in the equality of opportunity for all people without any distinction of religion, caste, class, race, etc.


b. Bhartiya Jana Sang stands for the nationalism of basic and defence industries but it does not favour the policies of taking more and more industries under state ownership and control because it believes that this tendencies is harmful both for democracy and economic development. Swatantra Party stands for the principle of maximum freedom for the individual and minimum interference by the state.


c. Jana Sangh favours to follow the policy of Non-Alignment with the two power blocs as also of Non-involvement in the international affairs not directly affecting India. Swatantra Party was critical of the policy of Non-Alignment and advocated close ties with the USA.



Question 9.

Take a political map of India (with State outlines) and mark:

(a) two states where Congress was not in power at some point during 1952-67.

(b) two states where the Congress remained in power through this period.


Answer:

Map is attached and marked:-

(a) 1. Kerala


2. Jammu & Kashmir


(b) 1. Uttar Pradesh


2. Rajasthan




Question 10.

Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He …. Sought to take the Congress away from its all-embracing character and turn it into a close-knit party of disciplined cadres. Being a ‘realist’ he looked more for discipline than for comprehension. While Gandhi took too romantic a view of “carrying on the movement,” Patel’s idea of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow.” — Rajni Kothari

(a) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party?

(b) Give some examples of the eclectic role of the Congress party in the early years.

(c) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s view about Congress’ future was romantic?


Answer:

(a) The organizer of the congress party wanted to flush out the congress of other political group and sought to make it a cohesive and disciplined political parry. He wanted that those members of the congress party who did not believe in the ideology of the congress should be out from the party. Patel was determined to make congress a party of discipline cadres.


(b) In the beginning congress party was dominated by the higher middle class; Upper caste and the educated class. It was not the party of the masses. The urban elite played a key role in the congress. Bal Gangadhar Tilak played an important role in making congress a party of middle class. With the home rule movement and non-cooperation movement. The social base of the congress party widened.


It provided a platform for numerous groups, interest and even political parties to participate in the national movement.


Congress party represented a rainbow like social collision representing diversity of India including various caste, class, religion and languages.


(c) Patel was a realist. He preferred discipline within the party rather than comprehension while Mahatma Gandhi took to a tender view of carrying on the movement. Gandhi believed in hand in hand characteristic of national movement led by congress which attracted various sections, groups and societies to form a social and ideological collision in congress.


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