Impact Of Technology On Livelihoods Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

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Question 1.

Narahari created the following list of activities where technology is not used.

Do you agree with him? If not prove him wrong.

a) While singing a song

b) While cooking idli

c) While performing drama on the stage

d) While making garland for sale


Answer:

I do not agree with Narahari as technology is used –

a) While singing a song – If the person is making use of mike and other related equipment’s (musical instruments) while singing a song than this activity includes use of technology.


b) While cooking idli – Technology is used for cooking food as the person is making use of different utensils. The special utensil is used for cooking idli which is the technological invention.


c) While performing drama on the stage – Technology plays major role here. In theatre, the individuals make use of various equipment’s such as making use of big screens, walkie-talkie, etc.


The technology is not used while making garland for sale as it is more of the manual work.



Question 2.

Describe how the situation of labour has changed in powerlooms and mills. Do you think this change is beneficial to the labourers or to the owner? Give reasons for your answer.


Answer:

The situation of labours in powerlooms and mills were completely different. The labours in power looms were given salary according to the quantity or the pieces they produce while in mills they are provided with monthly salary; thus, in powerlooms the workers were paid less salary as compare to mills. In powerlooms, the labours were not given any healthcare facilities, pension, or social security provisions. Also, they are not allowed to form trade unions whereas in mills, workers form trade unions to decide the wages. The labours of powerlooms faced certain health issues.

This change doesn’t benefit the labours as they faced many problems. But this change was beneficial to the owners of the powerlooms in many ways –


i. Britishers who introduced powerlooms in India earned a lot of profit as the quality of the cloth produced was low.


ii. Proper facilities such as healthcare facilities, pensions and social security were not provided to the labours. This way they earned more profit, and the mills began to decline.


iii. They impacted the choices of the people in terms of fabric as they produced variety of fabrics such as shirts, suits, blankets, dhotis, towels, sarees, etc. This way powerlooms began to develop and mills declined.



Question 3.

What are the advantages of using CHs? Who benefit most? Why do farmers use CH?


Answer:

Combined Harvester (CHs) is the modern agricultural machine which is commonly used for paddy harvest. There are many advantages of using CHs –

i. The three main activities related to crop production such as harvesting, threshing, and winnowing is done from the combined harvester.


ii. It gathers the crops, separates and cleans the grain from chaff.


iii. The use of CHs minimised the crop loss as it saves the crop from the unpredictable change in the weather especially in the coastal regions of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.


iv. The problem of labour shortage during the peak time of crop production is also solved as it takes less time to complete the agricultural activities and reduced the dependency of the labours.


v. This machine helped the farmers to start the sowing of second crop without delaying it.


The farmers are the one who benefitted the most, especially those who could afford to buy such machines.


The farmers use CHs because this machine combines all the three activities of harvesting, threshing, and winnowing. It reduced the dependency of farmers on labours and allowed them to cope up with the situation of labour shortage. It helped them to save the crops from unexpected weather change. Farmers can grow the second crops without much delay. Through, the use of CHs the timely harvest of paddy crops is now possible as it reduced the time of completing the agricultural activities.



Question 4.

Changes in technology lead to changes in job opportunities. Do you agree with this statement? Why?


Answer:

Yes, the Changes in technology lead to changes in job opportunities both positively and negatively. Positively, changes in technology lead to –

i. It created new types of jobs as the process of production changed completely for example – inventions of cars and other modes of transportation created jobs for like drivers, mechanics, and petrol pumps.


ii. Use of modern technology increased the pace of production process; thus, increasing job opportunities for people on monthly basis.


iii. Changes in technology changed the nature of work such as use of pumps for irrigating fields, use of chemicals, using various machines. Thus, creating variety of jobs.


iv. Technological changes affected tertiary sector also known as service sector thus, increasing demand for professions like teachers, doctors, etc.


v. It created large number of job opportunities in communication sector like in multinational companies, BPOs, telephones booths, mobile services and repair, etc.


Negatively, changes in technology lead to –


i. People equipped with traditional ways of working suffered in large number due to the invention of the modern technology. For example, invention of combined harvester led to loss of jobs for labours; people lose their jobs with the establishment of powerlooms.


ii. Increasing use of machines means less working by the humans as most of the work could be done by the machines which are usually operated by few people. It is leading to the loss of jobs for people working manually.


iii. People who cannot afford expensive tools and machines suffered more with the changes in technology.


iv. Technological changes created more job opportunities in urban areas as compared to rural areas; thus, reduced number of job opportunities for people living in rural areas.


v. People often find it difficult to get equipped with the new technology. Illiterate, old, and people living in rural areas suffered maximum with the changes in technology.



Question 5.

Mallaiah is a farmer in Sripuram village. There are about 100 houses in the village.

Today all the work like planting, weeding, harvesting, spraying pesticides and fertilisersis done by machines. In olden days it was all done manually. There are more than 33 tractors and about 15 harvesters available in his village. A few of them are given on hire. The owners of the tractors charge Rs 300 per hour for tilling the fields. More and more farmers are now using these machines in their fields. Based on this information create a wall paper with illustrations and possible discussions between different groups of people in the village.


Answer:

Please do the question yourself.



Question 6.

Prabavathi feels it is true that telephone technology has changed. She feels that new jobs are available to only educated persons. She also says that many people in India are not literate and hence modern technology is always biased to the educated.

Do you agree with her? Give your reasons.


Answer:

Yes, it is true that telephone technology has changed and the variety of jobs which has been created by the modern technology increased the job opportunities more for educated but not completely. Modern technology affected various sector differently. For example- in agriculture sector, people with traditional jobs lost their jobs, but the profit increased and created job opportunities for people on monthly basis rather than annually. In, secondary sector, the process of manufacture changed, it created variety of job opportunities both for educated people and who are not literate like drivers, car manufacturers, builders. Use of modern technology led to the emergence of the tertiary, or the service sector creating variety of job opportunities. To work in service sector the individual doesn’t required to be literate or educated but rather good with the use of technology. Many people are in India are not literate but to work with the use of modern technology doesn't require person to be educated but rather it required to get equipped with the use of particular tool or machine or technology. Therefore, I disagree that modern technology is always biased to the educated.



Question 7.

In this chapter, changes in technology in three sectors are discussed. In the following table identify a different example for each of these sectors that is not discussed here:



Answer:





Question 8.

Read the paragraph under the heading ‘New Skills and New Jobs’ and answer the following: What are the newly created jobs for young people in your area?


Answer:

In my area, the newly job opportunities for young people are in the multinational companies, BPOs, manufacturing industries, telecommunication centres, airlines. Most of the jobs created are in the tertiary or in the service sector. All, this is because of the introduction of the new technology and its increasing demand among the people which increased the job opportunities for the people in the service sector. It usually includes the jobs like selling the products online, manufacturing cars, and the other products like fridge, laptops, etc; convincing people to opt for new mobile offers, providing services online and many more.



Question 9.

Locate the following in the world map:

A) England B) USA C) India


Answer:



WORLD MAP



Question 10.

The people live in forest and adjacent to forest cannot afford to use latest technology.

What measures do you suggest for improving their lives?


Answer:

Yes, it is true that earlier, people living in forest and adjacent to forest cannot afford to use the latest technology. The measures to improve their lives are as follows-

i. Mobile towers should be established in the forest making easier for the people to connect to the network.


ii. The establishment of the network towers in the places adjacent to forest solves many problems. Most of the services are now online making it easier for the people to take advantage of the services online.


iii. Resources and other services should be provided to the people living in the forest.


iv. Proper health facilities should be provided to them as now government is trying their best to make available necessary health facilities in such areas.


v. People living in such areas make maximum use of natural products; thus, they should be taught and made aware of the maximum and the proper use of natural products to survive. For example use of plants for medicines, use of animals for food and for agricultural production.


vi. Awareness should be created among them to make use of the new technology and its advantages as they today also prefer to remain within their own boundary rather than using modern technology.


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