A. National Movement - The Early Phase 1885-1919 Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

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Question 1.

Correct the false statements:

a. In the early phase of Indian National Congress it included only people from Bombay.

b. Indian industrialist began to establish companies in different parts of India.

c. People in India expected that India will become democratic after the first world war.


Answer:

a. In the early phase of Indian National Congress it included only people from Bombay. False


Explanation: A O hume a retired british official played a pivotal role in setting up of Indian National Congress. The first session of INC was held at Bombay in 1885, presided by W C banerjee and had 72 delegates from all over India. In the early phase of INC the leaders like dadabhai naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta , Surendranath Banerjee, R C Dutt and others were largely from Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Chennai.


Hence the people in INC were not only from Bombay but others placed too.


b. True.


The P C rays set up Bengal Chemical works in Calcutta and jamshed ji establish Steel Plant in Tata. Similarly many textile industries were also opened in different parts of country.


c. True


Explanation: after the end of WWI, Russian revolution started in Europe, where peasants, workers, labourers and soldiers deposed the emperors and abolished landlordism. In India the war brought sufferings, as the taxes were increased by the British to compensate the losses occurred in Europe. This led to discontentment among the people. The news of Russiian Revolution inspire the people here in India, and the British that seemed invincible earlier was now thought that they could be defeated too. Hence the Indians hoped that their demand of Democratic rule would be granted by the Britishers.



Question 2.

Write an imaginary dialogue between the extremist and moderate activists of Indian

National congress in the context of their a) main demands; b) mode of mobilisation.


Answer:

(a) The demands of the moderates were :


1. they demanded that Indian should be allowed to take part in administration and in government,


2. they demanded that legislative council should be more representative and be introduced in provinces where it does not exist.


3. They demanded that Indians to be placed at high position in government, i.e. Civil Services Examination to be held in India too.


The demands of the extremists:


1. They boycotted the foreign goods, institutions etc and demanded for indigenous market.


2. They demanded for Home Rule.


(b) The moderates organised lectures, meetings and toured different parts of country to reach out to the people. They sticked to the policy of pray,petition and protest.The moderates could gather only the educated while the major chunk of masses remained unreached.


The extremists were able to gather women, students and major leap into the movement, be it urban or rural everyone participated.



Question 3.

After reading this chapter Mariamma thinks early phase of national movement was largely participated by educated Indians. And many of their ideas were of western origin. Will you agree with her? Give reasons.


Answer:

Yes, I agree with her.


The early phase of congress consisted of delegates who were mainly lawyers, journalists,traders, industrialists, teachers and landlords. There were very few women participant like Kadambini ganguly . they carried their agitation through newspapers and magazines which were unreachable in rural regions. Hence the rural India including farmers, labourers, women , young people were not part of the movement, it concentrated mostly to the educated and urban.



Question 4.

Why was it important to understand the economic impact of British rule in India?


Answer:

learning economic impact of British rule revealed the real reason behind establishment of British Rule in India.

The economists and leaders like dadbhai Naoroji and R C Dutt studied the impact and learned that British were draining money from India in the form of taxes and other means. This made the poor poorer. They also concluded that the famines and droughts were the outcome of British policies due to excessive land revenue, huge exports.


Hence they revealed the true face of British regime.



Question 5.

What do you understand by swadeshi? What were the major areas of its impact?


Answer:

The idea behind Swadeshi is to promote indigenous materials like cloths, shops, goods etc and boycotting foreign goods.

The partition of Bengal left the people devastated and developed agony against the British rule. In response to the partition, meetings were held all over Bengal, protests, and boycotting of foreign goods were common sight . Both the rural and urban masses participated, foreign cloths were burned, picketing of shops, boycotting English institutions. The movement provided massive impetus to the Indian industries , demands for indigenous goods increased. The P C rays Bengal Chemical works and jamshed ji’s Steel Plant in Tata were outcome of the movement. The Indian textile were among the largely benefitted.


The entire region of Bengal was impacted by the movement.



Question 6.

How did different parts of the country and people respond to division of Bengal?


Answer:

On the day of partition i.e. on 16th Oct 1905, was observed as day of mourning in Bengal. The hartals were declared, people didn’t cooked, processions were taken out, people took dip in river ganga as mourning and walked on street chanting Vande Mataram, people tied Rakhis on each other hand as a sign of Unity.

Swadeshi movement was carried out in order to boycott foreign goods.


Both the rural and urban masses participated, foreign cloths were burned, picketing of shops, boycotting English institutions.



Question 7.

Locate the following in India map:

1. Calcutta (Kolkata) 2. Madras (Chennai) 3. Bombay (Mumbai) 4. Lucknow


Answer: 



Question 8.

Locate the following in the World map:

1. Britain 2. France 3. Russia 4. Germany


Answer: 



Question 9.

A few leaders like Gandhiji, Tilak, Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh sacrified their lives for the sake of our nation.

What would have happened, if they did not do so?


Answer:

The leaders like Gandhiji, Tilak, Bose, Bhagat Singh and many more served India and were pioneers of the movements that united India and led to freedom.


Gandhiji also called as the father of nation had guided the movements and sticked to his principles and his strategies brought down the British regime.


The leaders fought not to sacrifice but to free India and in the process they readily sacrificed when time demanded. Like Bhagat Singh was hanged by the British because his revolutionary methods were working against the British rule. Though he died, but left many bhagat singhs behind.


Without the sacrifice of these leaders and their unconventional patriotism filled the nation with nationalism and which ultimately granted us freedom.


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