Chapter 2: The Sower english, fyjc, 11th std, maharashtra board, balbharathi solution,

Chapter 2: The Sower

Make a list of words related to agriculture.

Solution

Words related to agriculture are as follows:

Letter

Words

A

animals, arid, agrarian, acres

B

barn, biofuel, barren, botanical

C

cattle, cultivation, crops, chemicals

D

drought, development, domestication, drainage

E

equipment, erosion, ecology, environment

F

farm, fertile, furrow, farmer

G

graze, ground, grain, germination

H

harvest, hectare, husbandry, harrow

I

irrigation, intercropping, insects

L

labour, livestock, land

M

machinery, manure, materials, mulch

N

nutrient management, nature, nitrogen

O

overcrop, organic

P

pesticide, pollination, ploughing, produce

R

reap, region, rear, resource

S

seed, sow, soil, sprout

T

tillage, tractor, technique, trade

V

Vermifiltration

W

wool, water, weather, wheat


Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer. 

Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer.

Solution

Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer.


In our country engineering, teaching, and medical fields are much sought after. Other professions, occupations though they make a significant contribution to society, do not get their due.

(a)

Farmer

highly unpredictable economic gains

(b)

Conservancy workers

________________

(c)

________________

________________

(d)

________________

________________

(e)

________________

________________


Solution


i.

Farmer

highly unpredictable economic gains

ii.

Conservancy workers

No protective clothing for handling waste, no provision of clean water and soap at the dumps for washing, high risk of skin-related and respiratory diseases due to the handling of and exposure to toxic waste.

iii.

Veterinarian

animal bites, scratches, exposure to chemicals, exposure to radiation and disease-causing pathogens, etc

iv.

Sales Personnel

extensive travelling, long working hours, income partly dependent on variables.

v.

Factory Workers

low wages, unpredictable working hours, working overtime, health risks, and dangers while handling heavy machinery.


'Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy'. Fill in the boxes supporting this statement. Complete the following web diagram.

'Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy'. Fill in the boxes supporting this statement. Complete the following web diagram.

Solution


'Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy'. Fill in the boxes supporting this statement. Complete the following web diagram.


There are a number of challenges a farmer in India faces. Discuss with your friend, how it is possible to improve the condition of farmers.

Sr.

No.

Challenges

Solutions

1.

Water Scarcity

Rain Water Harvesting

2.

Credit and In-debtedness

 

3.

Land Issues

 

4.

Climatic changes

 

5.

Social Groups

 

6.

Lack of advanced technology

 

7.

Diversification

 

8.

Market Risks

 


Solution


Sr.No.

Challenges

Solutions

1.

Water Scarcity

Rain Water Harvesting.

2.

Credit and Indebtedness

Providing subsidies and waiving loans.

3.

Land Issues

Preventing soil erosion, watershed management, crop diversification, etc.

4.

Climatic changes

Insuring crops damaged due to natural disasters, engaging in climate forecasting to limit the extent of damage

5.

Social Groups

Social groups need to stop influencing a farmer's choice in terms of the adoption of new methods, diversification, etc. Farmers ought to stop giving in to the pressure put on them by these social groups.

6.

Lack of advanced technology

Provision of modern solutions to deal with modern problems, adopting methods that increase yield, making advanced technology available at subsidised rates.

7.

Diversification

Provision of agriculture insurance to limit the risks involved in crop diversification, and to reduce the dependence.

8.

Market Risks

Regularisation of market prices by the government, minimum revenue guarantees for farmers, etc.


The poet has observed the sower closely. Express in your own words the reverence the poet has for the sower.

Solution


The poet notices the sower for the first time when the twilight sets in. The sower captures the poet‟s attention because the working hours are over, but the sower is still working hard in the field. As the poet continues to observe the sower, he realises that the sower is committed to his work. The sower‟s silhouette against the twilight sky makes his form dominate the deep furrows. The poet‟s reverence increases when he sees the sower striding across the field in order to scatter the grains far and wide, despite the deepening darkness. For the poet, the actions of the sower are dignified because he knows that the sower was not sowing only for himself, but for everyone else. He persevered so that others could enjoy the fruits of his hard work. The poet‟s respect for the sower increases manifold and he sees the sower as being tall enough to touch the skies.


The poet is prompted to call the sower an ‘august personality’ which means one who has reached the highest position in his workplace.

Explain this using the following point.

Hard work

Solution

Hard work: The sower is termed as an 'august personality' by the poet for his absolute commitment towards his craft. The sower's diligence can be seen when he continues to work well beyond the working hours. Though the daytime is over, the sower maintains a calm and patient attitude and carries on with his work.


Perseverance

Solution

Perseverance: The sower's perseverance can be seen when he marches along the plain with determination to sow the seeds and hopes for a good harvest. The poem suggests that the sower is old and must have seen many bad harvests in his lifetime. In spite of this, he continues to persevere. He sows the seeds with the same hope and enthusiasm - that of a good harvest.


Dedication

Solution


Dedication: The dedication of the sower can be seen when he takes strides to move back and forth in the field to ensure that the grains are scattered all around so that it results in a good yield.


Pick out the examples of alliteration from the poem and write them down.

Solution

1. Sunlight, I see, dying fast - The consonantal sound 's' is repeated pleasingly.

2. Darkness deepens. - The consonantal sound 'd' is repeated pleasingly.

 

'Seems to touch the starry skies'. The poet has used word imagery. Describe the idea and pick out other similar examples from the poem.

Solution

The poet has created a mental picture of a farmer touching the sky filled with stars.

Similar examples of word imagery are as follows:

Twilight hastens on to rule.


Write an appreciation of the poem considering the following points:

  • About the poem/poet/title.

  • Theme

  • Poetic devices, language, style

  • Special features/ novelties/focusing elements

  • Values, message

  • Your opinion about the poem.


Solution

Appreciation of the poem 'The Sower'

'The Sower' is a poem about the hard work and persistence of a sower, who works tirelessly and relentlessly while the poet observes his actions and terms him as an august personality, who works not for himself, but for others. Originally written by Victor Hugo in French, this poem has been translated to English by the Bengali poet, Torulata Dutt, who was the first Indian poetess to write verses in English and French. The title of the poem represents the central character of the poem, that is, the sower.

The central idea of the poem revolves around the act of sowing seeds by the sower, while the poet observes him and begins to revere him for his noble actions. The poetic devices used in the poem are Alliteration, Antithesis, Consonance, Hyperbole, Inversion, Personification, Repetition, and Synecdoche. An example of Personification from the poem is 'Twilight hastens on to rule' where 'Twilight' has been given the animate quality of 'hastening (rushing in)'. The language used by the poet is slightly complex because it has been written in a way that it maintains the rhyme scheme of 'abab'. It has a steady rhythm and a consistent metre, meaning that there is consistency in the number of syllables used in a line. The poet follows the narrative style of writing, where he gives a first-person account of observing the sower working hard in the field.

The special features used in the poem are imagery and symbolism. The poem is full of descriptive imagery, as each line either describes the scene or the action of the sower or the poet. The dominance of the silhouette of the sower over the deep furrows is symbolic of the dominance of man over nature. The 'precious grain' is so-called because each grain holds importance for the sower. He shall sow these grains carefully and hope for a good harvest.

The novelties in this poem are the exact translations of lines from French by Toru Dutt. She chose to provide a true account of the observations, as written by Victor Hugo, instead of trying to refine the lines that sound inelegant when translated. Her retention of the optimistic tone of the poem makes the poem refreshing and appealing. The focussing elements in the poem are the dedication and commitment of the sower, his perseverance, and the poet's acknowledgment of the sower's actions as being selfless and noble.

The values that one can learn from this poem are determination, perseverance, and selflessness. The message given by the poet, through this poem, is that one should keep working with a positive attitude in life because one shall eventually reap the benefits of one's hard work.

The sower's commitment towards his work and the poet's admiration of the sower, give the poem a positive and encouraging tone, thus making it a fine read.


Write a summary of the poem using the following points:

  • Title

  • Introductory paragraph (about the poem, type, nature, tone)

  • Main body (central idea, the gist of the poem)

  • Conclusion (opinion, views, appeal)

Solution


The Sower

The poem centres on the act of sowing by the farmer, who tirelessly sows the seeds, despite having seen many bad harvests. Still an optimist, he hopes for a good harvest each time he sows the seeds. The poem is an ode to the sower, whose noble actions make him the receptor of the poet's admiration. It is a gripping narrative by the poet of his observations about the sower. The tone of the poem is optimistic and complimentary. As the poem progresses, the poet's description of the sower takes on a tone of reverence. The central idea of the poem is that with dedication, commitment, perseverance, and hard work, one can achieve anything that one sets one's mind too. The poet's observations about the sower tell us that the sower's undeterred faith in the likelihood of a good harvest in the future makes him work hard today. Though the sower is old and in tattered clothes, he is calm and patient, because he knows that even if he doesn't get to reap the benefits of his labour, others will certainly benefit from it. The sower braves the darkness and continues to sow the seeds by marching to and fro in the field, scattering the grain far and wide and ensuring that the grains cover the entire field. This is when the poet realises that the sower's actions are noble because he does not sow merely for himself. For the greatness of his actions, the sower appears to be a towering figure, whose nobility elevates his position in the poet's eyes such that his height seems to be touching the starry skies.

The poem is full of positive elements that aim to encourage the reader. The constant reiteration of the values like persistence and resolve give the poem a motivational tone and the extensive use of word imagery make the poem appealing to the readers.


Compose a poem on a farmer in 4 to 6 lines in continuation of the following.

  1. He sweats ________________

  2. He does not fret ________________

  3. He sows ________________

  4. To the soil he bows ________________


Solution


  1. He sweats every day from dawn to dusk,

  2. He does not fret any hurdle or crux,

  3. He sows the seeds for abundant yield,

  4. To the soil, he bows for God in the field.
    Strives he relentlessly comes what may,
    He knows what he sows he shall reap one day.



Imagine that you are a farmer from a drought-prone area. Write a letter to a newspaper editor, discuss the problems, and suggest possible solutions.

Solution

Shivaji Bhosale

Pota Village,

Buldhana District,

Vidarbha.

15th May 2020

 

The Editor

Dainik Newspaper,

S.N. Road,

Mumbai - 400 501

Subject: Drawing attention to the farmers of the drought-prone Vidarbha region in Maharashtra

Respected Sir,

I, a farmer having a vast stretch of land in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, am writing this letter to request your kind attention to the drought situation that my fellow farmers and I have been facing for the past few months.

Our farming activities have been stalled due to a lack of water. The storage water in the dam has already been used and the groundwater can only be obtained by drilling a very deep borewell. There is no other source of water than the water-tankers that supply drinking water to a number of villages in Vidarbha. The situation is going from bad to worse. Many of us had taken loans from the Mahajan's in order to purchase growth-boosters for the crops. Despite using growth-boosters, 80% of our crops got damaged. It has become very difficult to earn anything from just a 20% yield. Neither are we able to manage our day-to-day expenses nor save any money for the repayment to the Mahajans.

By writing to you, I would like to urge financial institutions to help us get out of this situation. Offering easy loan schemes with flexible payment plans can help many farmers repay their debts and have some money for survival. Also, if there are any policies that can help us insure our land, seeds, and crops, a huge burden will be taken off us. By ensuring our crops, we'll be able to minimize our losses due to weather-related damages, provided it is covered under the policy.

The debt keeps increasing and the burden is way too much. This is a distress call. We really need help. I am hoping that you will publish an article on this and draw more attention to the problems we're facing due to the drought.

Yours faithfully,

Shivaji Bhosale


Agricultural is the principal occupation in Maharashtra that has many career opportunities.

(a)

Agriculture Correspondent

(b)

Marketing Communications Manager

(c)

Agricultural Policy Analyst

(d)

Farm Management

(e)

Soil Conservationist

(f)

Scientist- Krishi Vigyan Kendra

(g)

Machine Design Engineer

(h)

Zoologist

(i)

Veterinarian

(j)

Food Microbiologist

(k)

Horticulturist

(l)

Agricultural Economics

Write in brief about the various career opportunities given above. You can collect the information from the following universities.

  1. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

  2. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Pune.

  3. Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola.

Solution

Do it Yourself.


Visit your college library or through the web, quest collects information on the ‘Green Revolution’ and ‘White Revolution’ in our country.

Solution

Green Revolution

Green Revolution was the introduction of modern agricultural methods to industrialise the agricultural sector. This was done by introducing High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, laying emphasis on food grains such as wheat and rice, the introduction of machinery like drills, tractors, etc., and the availability of fertilizers and pesticides. It started in the year 1965.

Advantages of the Green Revolution:

  1. It may be helping to reduce the number of greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. It allows us to produce more food than traditional growing methods.

  3. It provides us with consistent yields during uncooperative seasons.

  4. It causes a reduction in food prices for the global economy.

  5. It has reduced the issues of deforestation on our planet.

Disadvantages of the Green Revolution

  1. It created a lack of biodiversity in the global cropland structures.

  2.  It can be wiped out with one devastating disease.

  3. It reduces the quality of the soil used for growing crops.

  4. It requires the use of non-sustainable agricultural methods.

  5. It creates health impacts that we must consider with its practices.

 

White Revolution

White Revolution, also known as Operation Flood, was a program that was started by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) with a view to making India the largest producer of milk in the world. This was done by connecting the main milk sheds of the country to the metro cities, increasing the number of milk sheds, setting up new dairies, and enabling dairy cooperatives to strengthen infrastructure. The adoption of the three-tier 'Amul-model' was the key to the success of the White Revolution.

Advantages of the White Revolution:

  1. Increase in the sustainable production of milk. 

  2. Increase in the quality of milk goods. 

  3. Availability of the milk products in the urban and rural areas. 

Disadvantages of the White Revolution:

  1. Import of foreign breeds, lack in the use of local breeds. 

  2. Import of the foreign feed that cannot be produced in India. 

  3. Ignorance of the research and development of the agricultural sector of the country. 

 

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