Carbon Compounds Class 10th Science And Technology Part 1 MHB Solution

Class 10th Science And Technology Part 1 MHB Solution
Exercise
  1. Match the pairs.
  2. Draw an electron dot structure of the following molecules. (Without showing the circles)…
  3. Draw all possible structural formulae of compounds from their molecular formula given…
  4. Structural isomerism Explain the terms with an example.
  5. Covalent bond Explain the terms with an example.
  6. Hetero atom in a carbon compound Explain the terms with an example.…
  7. Functional group Explain the terms with an example.
  8. Alkane Explain the terms with an example.
  9. Unsaturated hydrocarbon Explain the terms with an example.
  10. Homopolymer Explain the terms with an example.
  11. Monomer Explain the terms with an example.
  12. Reduction Explain the terms with an example.
  13. Oxidant Explain the terms with an example.
  14. CH3 - CH2 - CH2 - CH3 Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  15. CH3 - CHOH - CH3 Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  16. CH3 - CH2 - COOH Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  17. CH3 - CH2 - NH2 Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  18. CH3 - CHO Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  19. CH3 - CO - CH2 - CH3 Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.…
  20. Identify the type of the following reaction of carbon compounds. a. CH3 - CH2 - CH2 - OH →…
  21. pent-2-one Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  22. 2- chlorobutane Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  23. propan- 2 ol Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  24. methanal Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  25. butanoic acid Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  26. 1- bromopropane Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  27. ethanamine Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  28. butanone Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.…
  29. What causes the existence of very large number of carbon compound? Write answers as…
  30. Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types. Write these names giving one…
  31. Give any four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it. Write name and…
  32. Give names of three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms. Write name…
  33. Give names of three natural polymers. Write the place of their occurance and names of…
  34. What is meant by vinegar and gashol? What are their uses? Write answers as directed.…
  35. What is a catalyst? Write any one reaction which is brought about by use of catalyst?…

Exercise
Question 1.

Match the pairs.



Answer:



Question 2.

Draw an electron dot structure of the following molecules. (Without showing the circles)

a) Methane

b) Ethene

c) Methanol

d) Water


Answer:

(a) 


(b)


(c)


(d) 



Question 3.

Draw all possible structural formulae of compounds from their molecular formula given below.

(a) C3H8

(b) C4H10

(c) C3H4


Answer:

(a) C3H8


Propane (C3H8) has no isomers. There is only one possible structure for propane:



(b) C4H10



(c) C3H4


Only one structure is possible




Question 4.

Explain the terms with an example.

Structural isomerism


Answer:

The phenomenon in which compounds having different structural formulae have the same molecular formula is called structural isomerism

Example: Molecular Formulae= C4H10




Question 5.

Explain the terms with an example.

Covalent bond


Answer:

The chemical bond formed by sharing of two valence electrons between the two atoms is called the covalent bond. Examples:- H2



Question 6.

Explain the terms with an example.

Hetero atom in a carbon compound


Answer:

The atoms of the elements such as halogen, oxygen, nitrogen substitute one or more hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon chain and thereby the tetravalency of carbon is satisfied. The atom of the element which is a substitute for hydrogen is referred as a hetero atom in carbon compounds.

A heteroatom is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen. Example:



Note: Typical heteroatoms are nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.



Question 7.

Explain the terms with an example.

Functional group


Answer:

The compounds acquire specific chemical properties due to the hetero atoms or the groups. These hetero atoms or the groups containing hetero atoms are called functional groups.

Examples:- alcohol(-OH), aldehyde( – CHO)


The major functional groups are shown below:




Question 8.

Explain the terms with an example.

Alkane


Answer:

The valencies of all the atoms are satisfied by the single bonds. Such compounds are called saturated compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes.

Examples:- butane, methane


The following are the structures of alkanes:




Question 9.

Explain the terms with an example.

Unsaturated hydrocarbon


Answer:

The compound in which the valency of all the atoms is either satisfied by the double or triple bond is called unsaturated hydrocarbon.

Examples:- ethene, propyne



Question 10.

Explain the terms with an example.

Homopolymer


Answer:

The polymers which are formed by the repetition of a single monomer is called as homopolymers.

Examples:- Polyethylene, Teflon etc.



Question 11.

Explain the terms with an example.

Monomer


Answer:

The smallest unit that repeats regularly to form a polymer is called monomer.

Example: Polyvinyl is formed from the monomer 'vinyl chloride'



Question 12.

Explain the terms with an example.

Reduction


Answer:

Chemical reaction that involves the gaining of electrons by one of the atoms involved in the reaction.

Example: conversion of an aldehyde to alcohol.



Question 13.

Explain the terms with an example.

Oxidant


Answer:

Substances that can give oxygen to other substances are called oxidants or oxidizing agents.

Examples:- potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate.



Question 14.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH3


Answer:

Butane

Explanation: The parent chain consists of Four carbons and the valency of all the atoms is satisfied by single bond so It is a saturated hydrocarbon with the name Butane.



Question 15.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CHOH – CH3


Answer:

Propane-2-ol

Explanation: (i) The parent chain consists of three carbons so 'prop' is used and the numbering can be done from either left to right or right to left since this a symmetrical molecule.


(ii) On the second carbon, OH group is present which means alcohol group so the suffix used is 'ol'



Question 16.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CH2 – COOH


Answer:

Propanoic Acid

Explanation: (i) The parent chain consists of three carbons so the prefix 'propan' is used.


(ii) There is also a presence of COOH group indicating acid so the suffix used in this case is ' oic acid'



Question 17.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CH2 – NH2


Answer:

Ethanamine

Explanation: (i) The parent chain consists of two carbon atoms so the prefix 'eth' is used.


(ii) The presence of NH2 groups indicates the presence if amine and the same is used as the suffix



Question 18.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CHO


Answer:

Ethanal

Explanation: (i)The parent chain consists of two carbon atoms so the prefix used is 'Eth'


(ii) There is also a presence of aldehyde group I.e. CHO so the suffix used is 'al'.



Question 19.

Write the IUPAC names of the following structural formulae.

CH3 – CO – CH2 – CH3


Answer:

But-2-one

Explanation: (i)The parent chain consists of four carbon atoms so the prefix used is 'But'


(ii) There is also a presence of ketones group I.e. CO so the suffix used is 'one' and 2 is indicating the position of the ketone group.



Question 20.

Identify the type of the following reaction of carbon compounds.

a. CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – OH → CH3 – CH2 – COOH

b. CH3 – CH2 – CH3→ 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

c. CH3 – CH= CH – CH3 + Br2→ CH3 – CHBr – CHBr – CH3

d. CH3 – CH3 + Cl2→ CH3 – CH2 – Cl + HCl

e. CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 – OH → CH3 – CH2 – CH= CH2 + H2O

f. CH3 – CH2 – COOH + NaOH → CH3 – CH2 – COO – Na+ + H2O

g. CH3 – COOH + CH3 – OH → CH3 – COO – CH3 + H2O


Answer:

(a) Oxidation Reaction


Propanol is oxidized to propanoic acid


(b) Combustion reaction


Propane in the presence of air gives carbon dioxide and water.


(c) Addition Reaction


Bromine attacks on the double bond to give Vic. Dihalide.


(d) Substitution reaction


Chlorine replaces the hydrogen and the second chlorine forms the byproduct HCl.


(e) Dehydration reaction


Butanol reacts in the presence of acid to give alkene with the removal of water.


(f) Neutralization reaction


Ethanoic acid in pre


sence of base NaOH gives salt and water.


(g) Esterification reaction


Acetic acid and methanol reacts to give ester (methyl methanoate) as the product.



Question 21.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

pent-2-one


Answer:



Question 22.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

2- chlorobutane


Answer:



Question 23.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

propan- 2 ol


Answer:



Question 24.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

methanal


Answer:



Question 25.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

butanoic acid


Answer:

CH3CH2CH2COOH



Question 26.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

1- bromopropane


Answer:



Question 27.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

ethanamine


Answer:



Question 28.

Write structural formulae for the following IUPAC names.

butanone


Answer:



Question 29.

Write answers as directed.

What causes the existence of very large number of carbon compound?


Answer:

Carbon is able to form large number of compounds due to the property of catenation.


The atomic number of carbon = 6.


The two electrons are in the inner orbit, while the other four are valance electrons—outer electrons that are available for forming bonds with other atoms.



Due to this, carbon can form large number of compounds and catenation is the reason for the existence of large number of carbon compounds.



Question 30.

Write answers as directed.

Saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types. Write these names giving one example each.


Answer:

The saturated hydrocarbons are classified into three types:-

(i) Straight chains:- The carbon atoms are joined in a straight chain with single bond.



(ii) Branched chain:- Some carbon atoms are branched to other carbon atoms.



(iii) Rings:- Carbon atoms forms the rings.




Question 31.

Write answers as directed.

Give any four functional groups containing oxygen as the heteroatom in it. Write name and structural formula of one example each.


Answer:

Four functional groups are:-

(i) Alcohol


Example: Propan-2-ol



(ii) Aldehyde


Example: methanal



(iii) Carboxylic acid


Example: Butanoic acid


CH3CH2CH2COOH


(iv) ketones


Examples:- butanone




Question 32.

Write answers as directed.

Give names of three functional groups containing three different hetero atoms.

Write name and structural formula of one example each.


Answer:

(i) Ethanamine containing nitrogen as the hetero atom



(ii) Alchol containing oxygen as the hetero atom


Example: propan-2-ol



(iii) 2-chlorobutane containing Chlorine as the hetero atom.




Question 33.

Write answers as directed.

Give names of three natural polymers. Write the place of their occurance and names of monomers from which they are formed.


Answer:

Three Natural polymers are:-



Question 34.

Write answers as directed.

What is meant by vinegar and gashol? What are their uses?


Answer:

Vinegar is liquid consisting of water and acetic acid and other Trace chemicals which includes flavoring.

Uses of Vinegar:-


(i) eliminates odors


(ii) Kill bathroom germs


(iii) freshen up the fridge


Gasohol is a mixture of petrol and alcohol used as an alternative fuel for cars and other vehicles.



Question 35.

Write answers as directed.

What is a catalyst? Write any one reaction which is brought about by use of catalyst?


Answer:

Catalyst is a substance that causes a chemical reaction to occur but is not itself involved in the reaction.

Example: formation of ammonia


N2 + 3H2→ 2NH3


Catalyst used is iron and molybednum.


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