### Q.6. Answer in detail.1. State and explain the ‘law of demand’ with its exceptions.

Balbharati solutions for Economics HSC 12th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 3 -(A) Demand Analysis [Latest edition]

Q.6. Answer in detail:

1. State and explain the ‘law of demand’ with its exceptions.

Law of Demand:-

Law of demand is one of the important basic laws of consumption. Dr Alfred Marshall, in his book "Principles of Economics", has explained the law of demand as follows.

"Other things being constant the higher the price of the commodity, smaller is the quantity demanded arid lower the Mice of the commodity larger is the quantity demanded."

The law of demand explains a change in the behaviour of consumer demand due to various changes in price. Marshall's Law of demand describes the functional relation between demand and price. It can be expressed as D = f (P) that is demand is a function of price. The relation between price and demand is inverse because larger quantity is demanded when a price falls and smaller quantity will be demanded when the price rises. The law of demand is explained with the help of the following schedule and diagram.

Table No. 3.3 = Demand Schedule

 Price of MangoesPer Kg. (Rs.) Demand for Mangoes(Kg.) 50 1 40 2 30 3 20 4 10 5

As shown in the schedule when the price of mangoes is Rs. 5O/- per kg. demand is 1 kg. When the price falls to the level of Rs. 40/- per kg. and demand rises to 2 kg. Similarly, at the price Rs. 10/- per kg. the demand for mangoes is 5 kg., whereas 4 kg. of mangoes are demanded at price Rs. 20/- per kg. This shows an inverse relationship between price and demand.

In this diagram, X-axis represents demand for mangoes, whereas Y" axis represents the price of mangoes. DD is demand! a curve which slopes downwards from left to right. In other words, its slope is negative because of an inverse relationship between price and demand.

Exceptions to the Law of Demand:-

The Law of Demand explains an inverse relationship between the price of a commodity and the quantity demanded of it. Sometimes, however, we see a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded of a commodity.

Under exceptions to the Law of Demand, the demand curve slopes upwards from left to right which shows a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded.

It can be shown in the following diagram. REF. T.B

1. Giffen goods:-

Certain inferior goods are-ca1Md Giffen goods, when the price falls, quite often less quantity will be purchased than before because of the negative income effect and people's increasing preference for a superior commodity with the rise in their real income. Sir Robert Giffen observed the situation related to demand for bread & meat in England. When the price of bread was decreasing, less bread was purchased. Here surplus money was transferred to purchase meat, as a result, demand for meat increased.

This behaviour is known as Giffen's paradox. Thus Giffen goods are inferior goods which have a direct relationship between price and quantity demanded, In this case, the demand curve slopes \ upwards from left to right as shown in the above diagram.

2. Prestige goods:-

Diamonds, high priced motor cars, luxurious bungalows are prestige goods. Such goods have a "snob appeal". Rich people consume such goods as a status symbol. Therefore, when the price of such goods rises their demand also rises.

3. Price illusions or  Consumers Psychological bias:-

Consumers have an illusion that high priced goods are of a better quality. Therefore the demand for such goods tends to increase with a rise in their price. e.g. Branded products which are expensive are demanded at a high price

4. Demonstration effect:-

The tendency of the low-income group to imitate the consumption pattern of high-income groups is known as Demonstration effect. For example demand for consumer durables such as washing machines, latest mobile etc.

5. Ignorance:-

Sometimes people do not have proper market knowledge. They may not be aware of the fall in the price of a commodity and thus they tend to purchase more at a higher price.

6. Speculation:-

When people speculate a change in the price of a commodity in the future, they may not act according to the Law of demand. People may tend to buy, more at rising price, when they anticipate further price rise. For example, in the stock market, people tend to buy more shares at rising prices. Even if prices of some goods like sugar, oil etc. are rising before Diwali, people go on purchasing more of these things at rising prices, because they think that prices of these goods may increase further during Diwali.

7. Habitual Goods:-

Due to a habit of consumption certain goods like tobacco, cigarettes etc are purchased even if prices are rising. Thus it is an exception.

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