Write the reasons for imperialism?


The European nations moulded by the Renaissance movement developed a craving for modern imperialism. Because of this craving the entire regions under Asia and Africa were brought under imperial rule by the year 1914. The various reasons for imperialism were as follows:

1)       Scientific inventions: -
a.       Life had gained momentum on account of the extraordinary invention brought about by the scientist.
b.       The invention of steam power, electricity, coal and iron revolutionized the means of transportation and communication.
c.        Scientist motivated the creation of modern weapons which woke up the monstrous ambitious in human beings.
d.       Consequently there grew imperialism in many nations.

2)       Industrial Revolution: -
a.       To a great extent, industrial revolution boosted the modern imperialism.
b.       As the pace of production of goods went up, it became very difficult for the nations to sell the products within their national boundaries.
c.        Hence, there was felt on urgent need for finding out new markets.

3)       Need for raw material: -
a.       There was scarcity of the raw material as the production had increased due to industrial revolution.
b.       There had also started a kind of rat-race among the European nations for selling the domestic production.
c.        Therefore, these European nations colonized the Afro-Asian countries for just getting raw materials.
d.       That's why the European nations had to turn their imperial attention to Afro-Asian countries.

4)       Prosperity of Asia and Africa: -
a.       With a view of taking advantage of the abundant natural resources such as gold, silver, diamonds, iron and coal found in Africa and Asia, the European nations brought the Afro-Asian countries under their imperial rule.

5)       Rising European nations: -
a.       In order to satisfy the want of colonial power, the emerging nations like Germany and Italy began to attempt at acquiring colonies by seeking inspiration from England.
b.       The imperial struggle of Germany and Italy brought in an international conflicting situation, thus giving stimulus to imperialism.

6)       Ambition of Political domination: -
a.       There were needed security arrangements for the imperial nations to win and maintain colonies.
b.       Eventually, the European nations got involved into tussle of winning terrestrial and marine military posts of strategic importance.
c.        Some of the nations expanded their imperial rule for national pride and fame.
d.       The greatness of a nation would be decided by the number of colonies under it.

7)       Propagation of Religion: -
a.       The European believed that the white man's religion and culture were superior.
b.       Establishment of the colonies was followed by the entry of missionaries for the purpose of spreading their religion which intensified imperialism.

8)       Weakness of Asian and African nations: -
a.       The nation belonging to the African and Asian continent was weaker from political and economic point of view.
b.       They were infected (dirty) by invasion (attack) and feudalism, a great damage was done to the agriculture and business of these nations.

c.        The Europeans nations being scientifically stronger took full advantage of the limitation of these nations and brought them under their imperial region.

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HSC ENGLISH SET A 2019 21st February, 2019

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