Write a note on the development of constituents/components of human rights?

A2: The components of human rights became visible in 5 different directions from the 17th century onwards. For example

1. Civil human rights
2. Political human rights
3. Economic human rights
4. Social & cultural human rights
5. Development oriented human rights


Each century contributed to the development and strengthening of one or two different types of human rights.

The 17th and 18th century contributed and strengthened the civil rights which assured civil liberties, property and the rights to justice. The demand for civil rights in the 17th and 18th century was a demand against the state and its various authorities. The 18th and 19th centuries contributed to the strengthening of political rights which enabled the citizens of the state to take part in the government of the state directly or though their elected representatives.

The civil and political human rights are collectively known as the "liberty oriented human rights" because there rights collectively provide protection and guarantee individuals against the state and its agencies. The civil and political rights were 1st given by the American declaration of independence against British rule on the 4th of July 1776. 13 colonies in America proclaimed independence against the British Colonial rule. This was also known as the 1st generation of human rights. In 1789 there was a French declaration of rights of men.

In words of Dr. David Thompson, "it was a declaration of the rights of man, a statement intended to have a universal application and which had far reaching implication. It was drawn up not for France, but for the benefit of men everywhere.

The 20th century contributed to the development and strengthening of economic social and cultural rights and also the rights of the minorities. These rights aim at the promotion of the economic and social security through economic and social upliftment of the weaker sections of the society. These rights are essential for dignity of human beings and also for free development of human personality.

The economic social and cultural rights including the rights of the minorities are collectively known as security oriented human rights. These are also known as the second generation of human rights.

The development oriented human rights are of a very recent origin in the late 20th century. These human rights enable an individual to participate in the process all round development. These rights also include issues related to environment.