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Chapter 2.6: The Past in the Present [Latest edition] Balbharati solutions for English Kumarbharati 9th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

We find the following in the script of a skit or play. Rearrange these steps in the proper order and write them down in the form of a flow chart.



SOLUTION

script of a skit or play Flow Chart.

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Think of a play/skit which you have seen enacted on the stage and which has impressed you. Write the following details about it.

Name of the play/skit:

______________

Important characters:

______________

Any famous actors/actresses:

______________

Theme:

______________

Climax:

______________

Ending:

______________

Use of lights and special effects if any:

______________

Use of background music and sound effects if any:

______________

Use of sets:

______________

The costumes, make up, etc. of the characters:

______________

How well the actors present the play and behave on the stage:

______________

Your own opinion about the play:

______________



SOLUTION

Name of the play/skit:

Macbeth

Important characters:

Lord and Lady Macbeth, the three witches, Lord Macduff, Lord Banquo, King Duncan, and his son Malcolm.

Any famous actors/actresses:

Ian McKellen, Judi Dench.

Theme:

Ambition leading to one's end, as Macbeth murders King Duncan to become king.

Climax:

Macduff defeating Macbeth in battle and killing him.

Ending:

Malcolm, taking his father King Duncan's place as the rightful ruler.

Use of lights and special effects if any:

Smoke and fog when Macbeth meets the witches, the witches disappearing, lightning, the forest of Birnam wood travelling to Dunsinane Hill.

Use of background music and sound effects if any:

Storms with thunder and rain, sounds of the battle.

Use of sets:

The castles of Forres, Inverness, and Dunsinane Hill.

The costumes, make up, etc. of the characters:

Clothes from 9th Century Scotland, the witches' ugly looks, Banquo's ghost.

How well the actors present the play and behave on the stage:

Macbeth feels like a real story happening right in front of us and not just a drama, as the actors live their roles and don't just play their characters.

Your own opinion about the play:

Macbeth is a classic Shakespearean tragedy that always was and will be appreciated as it can be relatable and understood by every person in an audience even after 500 years of its creation.


Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Present these points in the form of a review, and give it a suitable title.


SOLUTION

Rise and fall: Macbeth's Ambition

Macbeth is a tragic drama written by the great Shakespeare that still appeals to people after 500 years. It is inspired by real historical events in Scotland during the 9th Century. The main characters are Lord and Lady Macbeth, the three witches, Lord Macduff, Lord Banquo, King Duncan, and his son Malcolm. One of the best stage adaptations of this play had Ian McKellen and Judi Dench playing the roles of Lord and Lady Macbeth. It felt less like a drama and more like the story was taking place in front of us. All the actors seemed to be the people they were playing. The detailed costumes, elaborate sets, and immersive sound and visual effects added to their theatrical skills. The castles of Forres, Inverness, and Dunsinane Hill, as well as Bimam Wood, all felt like live locations. The theme of merciless ambition leading to one's eventual fall is something that we can all relate to. The play reaches its peak in the final battle where Macbeth meets his end at the hands of Macduff. The end is happy as the rightful heir to the throne Malcolm promises his people to be a good king.



Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Prepare a ‘PowerPoint’ presentation, using one slide for each of the above points. Present your review in a PPT format in the classroom.


SOLUTION

Do it Yourself.


Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

Chapter 3: The Past in the Present

2.6 The Past in the Present

The diagram below encircles the various features that make the script of a skit/ play. List the other words and mention the form of writing of which it is a feature.

2.6 The Past in the Present



SOLUTION

Lead.line is a feature of a News Report. Salutation and Sender's Address are features of a Letter. The diagram is a feature of Information Transfer.


2.6 The Past in the Present

Choose the proper alternative to complete the following.

The skit covers a period of about ________ in the past.

OPTIONS

  • 3000 years

  • 1000 years

  • 5000 years

  • 1800 years



__________ characters from Neel’s ancestral lineage make an appearance in the play.

OPTIONS

  • Fourteen

  • Seven

  • Sixteen

  • Twelve


The task that all boys abhorred was ____________.

OPTIONS

  • cleaning up their room

  • farm-work

  • filling up water

  • making their beds


The skit conveys that doing your daily chores at home __________________.

OPTIONS

  • makes you stronger

  • sharpens your intellect

  • saves a lot of expenses

  • inculcates a sense of responsibility

2.6 The Past in the Present

Fill in the table.

Period

Way of Addressing a Mother

Boy’s Costume

Lady’s Costume

Daily Chores

Games

The 1950s

 

 

silk saree

 

 

1910

 

Kurta pajama and cap

 

 

 

The 1800s

 

 

 

 

 

The 1500s

 

 

 

 

 

1000

 

 

 

 

 

100 AD

 

 

 

feed poultry tend sheep keep away birds plaster the yard

 

3000 BC

 

 

 

 

Chaupar



SOLUTION

Period

Way of Addressing a Mother

Boy’s Costume

Lady’s Costume

Daily Chores

Games

The 1950s

Mama

Loose trousers and shirt

silk saree

Watering the - garden, bringing the groceries, dusting the living room, cleaning the bicycle

-

1910

Mummy

Kurta pyjama and cap

Nine-yard saree, nose ring and jewellery

Fetching water and filling up the pots, sweeping the terrace, collecting wood for the stove, cleaning the grinding stones

Riverside with friends

The 1800s

Mother dear

Dhoti, kurta and turban

Nine-yard saree and traditional jewellery

Washing clothes at the river and putting them up to dry, chopping the wood, fixing the broken fence, taking the goats to graze

Atya-Patya

The 1500s

My dear mother

Sleeveless loose V-neck top and dhoti

Nine-yards saree

Milking the cows, taking them to graze, fetching vegetables from their farm and stacking them, sweeping both the back yard and the front yard

Ashtapada

1000

Most revered mother

Flare tunic and churidar, waistband and turban

Saree, upper garment and lots of jewellery

Fetching water from the lake and pouring it into the farm channels to water their crops, clearing the blocked channels, pulling out weeds, patching the mud walls with cracks.

Puppet show

100 AD

Matadevi

Dhoti and a waistband, with no shirt

Saree and an upper garment, and beads jewellery

feed poultry tend sheep keep away birds plaster the yard

Bagh-Chal

3000 BC

I bow to thee!

A cloth around the waist held by a chord, long hair in a bun or ponytail

Saree, a veil with stone and beads jewellery

Hunting down food for their family, helping his father carve stone bricks for their new house, dusting their leather clothes, moulding mud pots for cooking and putting them to dry.

Chaupar


2.6 The Past in the Present

Answer in your own words.

What excuses did Neel give to avoid cleaning his room?



SOLUTION

To avoid his chores, Neel gives the excuse that he had just cleaned his room two days before. He also says that his bed will get messed up when he rests after lunch, so why should he make it.



Why does a mother tell Neel about his Grandpa?


SOLUTION

Neel's mother tells him about his Grandpa to show him that his Grandpa had many more difficult tasks to do, both inside and outside the house. She wants him to know that his life is easier.



What task did Grandpa wish to avoid?


SOLUTION

Neel's Grandpa, like him, wished to avoid making his bed after all the chores that he had done.



What did the ancestor from 1910 wish to do instead of making his bed?


SOLUTION

The ancestor from 1910, Neel's great-great-grandfather, wished to go to the riverside to play with his friends instead of making his bed.



How many chores did the ancestor from 1800 have to do?


SOLUTION

The ancestor from 1800 had to wash clothes at the river and put them up to dry, chop the wood, fix the broken fence, and take the goats to graze.



How is the boy from the 1500s dressed?


SOLUTION

The boy from the 1500s is dressed in a sleeveless loose V-neck top and a dhoti.



What chores did the boys from 1000 CE and 1st Century CE, do on their farms/fields?


SOLUTION

The boy from 1000 CE had to fetch water from the lake, pour it into the farm channels to water their crops, dear the blocked channels, and pull out weeds. The boy from 1st Century CE had to feed the poultry, tend the sheep and keep the birds away in the field using a sling.



What did Neel realise from his encounter with his ancestors?


SOLUTION

After meeting his ancestors, Neel realised that his ancestors had a life with more hard work and that his life was much easier compared to theirs. They would have to do household work and help their family with other tasks instead of just their daily chores.


2.6 The Past in the Present

In the play, two devices that make use of wheels are given. The devices are:

  1. _______________

  2. _______________

From the internet or other sources, trace the history of the use of the wheel. Write ‘An Autobiography of a Wheel’.



SOLUTION

The devices are (1) Bicycle (2) Grinding stones You all know me as your helpful friend, I'm the wheel. I was born in prehistoric times when humans saw a log of wood roll down a hill. They realised that a round object can spin and move objects with it. Such logs were used to transport blocks of stone as a primitive conveyor belt. They slowly shaped and developed me in a similar shape to what you now know. I was joined to my friend, the axle and rest, as they say, is history. I was used for many things; children would play with me as toys, men would use me to make pots and women would grind grain using me. I was also attached to pieces of wood to form a cart that would take people anywhere they wanted. It could be used to carry food and other goods and was pulled by animals like horses, oxen, camels. Later, I was used by people to steer, these vehicles in a new form called a steering wheel. Slowly, I was used in mills to draw water, and in factories to produce the goods which I transported. I was made better till I was everywhere. I controlled not only cars but also ships and even planes much later. These planes flew using propellers and jet engines which are other versions of me. I also realised that I'm a simple machine that can be used to make complex machines. I run inside all mechanical objects from watches to computers and am used mainly to power them. I even create electricity which is created from a spinning version of me called the turbine which is connected to a generator to create energy. I am busy working everywhere for your benefits, but I don't want anything in return. I just wanted to tell you my story, my friends, and J thank you for listening


2.6 The Past in the Present

Imagine that the ancestor from 1910 (AD) visits Neel in his dream. Compose a dialogue between the two about the various gadgets the visitor sees in Neel’s room.


SOLUTION

(Neel is sleeping peacefully and his ancestor Mahesh from 1910 visits him in his dream)

Mahesh:

Hello, Neel, my name is Mahesh. Do you know who I am?

Neel:

Mahesh was my great-great grandfather's name. I hope I remember correctly.

Mahesh:

Yes, you're right. I'm indeed your great great grandfather. I wanted to see how you were doing. As far as I can see, you don't like cleaning your room any more than I did.

Neel:

I'm doing good, and yes, Mom has been asking me to clean my room all day today. I don't like doing it because nobody enters my room beside me. But now that you've come to see me, I'll tidy it up as fast as I can.

Mahesh:

You're a good boy, Neel. You're more obedient than I ever was. But what are all these objects in your hands?

Neel:

They're just my gadgets. Would you like to see them?

Mahesh:

I have never seen anything like these, tell me more. What are these round things?

Neel:

These are called headphones. We use them to listen to music anywhere we want.

Mahesh:

Wow, we only had a gramophone to listen to music when I was your age.

Neel:

That's exactly what these are, small gramophones that you can take along with you.

Mahesh:

And what's this small block they're connected to?

Neel:

It's called a mobile phone. It's just like a telephone, but you can also take along it with you.

Mahesh:

It looks more complicated than that. What else does it do?

Neel:

You can also take pictures, play the radio, set an alarm, and even watch movies.

Mahesh:

Does this little block do all this? No wonder your generation is so smart.

Neel:

I wish you had all these gadgets in your time too, Grandpa.

Mahesh:

We don't need these objects to have fun. Our times were simpler and much easier. But promise me one thing, Neel. Never let such objects take control of your life. Happiness comes from inside you, not from things outside. It comes from the people you love around you.

Neel:

I promise, Grandpa. I will always treasure my loved ones more than material things.

Mahesh:

That is all I had to tell you, son. I will go back now. Be a good boy. You have my blessings.

Neel:

Thank you so much, Grandpa. I will always remember your advice and keep my word.


2.6 The Past in the Present

Imagine and compare an argumentative dialogue between the mothers of the 20th/21st century and those of the earlier era, about which life was better for women.


SOLUTION

Joy's mom:

I love working as a manager in my office, even though it can be tiring. My only concern is that I can't spend time with Joy and give him my attention.

Raju's morn (the 1950s):

I love my job too, but I'm not treated equally as the men in my office. However, I can look after the kids and give them at least sometime every day.

Nimesh's mom (1800s):

The only work I know is household chores and other odd jobs. I wish I could have been able to study. But I'm able to make sure my children get enough care and comfort.

Raghav's mom (3000 BCE):

I enjoy gathering and hunting with my family. But I want to spend more time doing what I love.

Joy's mom:

At least I can give him a comfortable life where he gets what he wants. Well, everything except a loving mother.

Raju's mom:

I try and give whatever he needs, he works hard for himself to get whatever he wants.

Nimesh's mom: 

I'm unable to give him anything myself, even knowledge. But I can provide all the warmth and love of a mother.

Raghav's mom:

He hunt from when he was a kid. I wish I was able to do more for him, so he wouldn't have to.

Nimesh's mom:

Isn't any era where women are happy doing what they are able to?

Raju's mom:

Yes, why do we always want to keep doing more? Even when we're doing so much?

Joy's mom:

Maybe that's what makes us good mothers and better people. We never stop trying to better ourselves. It's not only for our own sake but even for our children's happiness.

Raghav's mom:

I think you are right. Mothers want to do as much as they can. And even more of what they can't.

Joy's mom:

We don't feel this because we don't do enough. We feel this because what we want to do is never-ending. We should just be happy doing what we are able to, to the best of our capacities.


2.6 The Past in the Present
2.6 The Past in the Present

Read the entry about ‘voice’ in the ‘Language Study’ pages. Note that the speeches of all the boys are in the ‘active’ voice. Turn them into passive constructions.

Neel - I put the dishes in the dishwasher. 



SOLUTION

Passive - Dishes have been put in the dishwasher.



1950s Boy - I have watered the garden.


SOLUTION

Passive - The garden has been watered by me.



1950s Boy - brought home the groceries.


SOLUTION

Passive - The groceries have been brought home by me.



1950s Boy - dusted the living room.


SOLUTION

Passive - The living room has been dusted by me.



1950s Boy - cleaned my bicycle.


SOLUTION

Passive - My bicycle has been cleaned by me.


2.6 The Past in the Present

Think of suitable names for the boys from the earlier centuries.


SOLUTION

  1. 1950s Ashok

  2. 1910 Pratap

  3. 1800s Madhav

  4. 1500s Malhar

  5. 1000 Ramanath

  6. 100 CE Krishnadeva

  7. 3000 BCE Uruk

2.6 The Past in the Present

Form groups of 5-8. Translate the play into your mother tongue (or Hindi) as a group activity. Enact the translation in the classroom.


SOLUTION

Do it yourself.


2.6 The Past in the Present

Read ‘The Story of the Amulet’ by E. Nesbit.


SOLUTION

Do it Yourself.


Balbharati Solutions for English Kumarbharati 9th Standard Maharashtra State Board


 • Chapter 1.1: Life

 • Chapter 1.2: A Synopsis-The Swiss Family Robinson

 • Chapter 1.3: Have you ever seen...?

 • Chapter 1.4: Have you thought of the verb ‘have’

 • Chapter 1.5: The Necklace

 • Chapter 2.1: Invictus

 • Chapter 2.2: A True Story of Sea Turtles

 • Chapter 2.3: Somebody’s Mother

 • Chapter 2.4: The Fall of Troy

 • Chapter 2.5: Autumn

 • Chapter 2.6: The Past in the Present

 • Chapter 3.1: Silver

 • Chapter 3.2: Reading Works of Art

 • Chapter 3.3: The Road Not Taken

 • Chapter 3.4: How the First Letter was Written

 • Chapter 4.1: Please Listen!

 • Chapter 4.2: The Storyteller

 • Chapter 4.3: Intellectual Rubbish

 • Chapter 4.4: My Financial Career

 • Chapter 4.5: Tansen

.

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