Chapter 12 - India, Nations in the northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China Balbharati solutions for History 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 12: India, Nations in the northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China


Choose the correct alternative and complete the sentence.

The coin hoards found in ____________ had Roman gold coins in it.

OPTIONS

  • Tamilnadu

  • Maharashtra

  • Karnataka

  • Kerala



The famous king Hammurabi had ruled the kingdom of ________.

OPTIONS

  • Syria

  • Babylon

  • China

  • Greece



The route that links Asia and ____________ is referred as the ‘Silk Route’.

OPTIONS

  • Europe

  • Africa

  • America

  • Russia



‘White Horse Temple’ is the first Buddhist temple built in ___________.

OPTIONS

  • India

  • Japan

  • China

  • Egypt



Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.

Set ‘A’

Set ‘B’

(1) Strabo

Geographia

(2) Pliny the Elder

Naturalis Historia

(3) Hippalus

Hippokura

(4) Arrian

Indica



SOLUTION

Set ‘A’

Set ‘B’

(3) Hippalus

Periplus of the Erythrean Sea



Write the name.

A place in the Gandhara region enlisted as a world Cultural heritage.


SOLUTION

Takht-i-Bahi



Buddhist monks in the 4th century B.C.E. who translated many Buddhist texts in Chinese language.


SOLUTION

Kumarjeeva



Complete the concept map.

Chapter 12 - India, Nations in the northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China Balbharati solutions for History 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


SOLUTION

Chapter 12 - India, Nations in the northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China Balbharati solutions for History 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board


Explain the following statement with reason.

Buddhism reached China during Kushana period.


SOLUTION

  1. The Ancient Kapisha (Begram)was an additional capital of the Kushanas which was located on the silk route at a vantage point.

  2. The trade route from Afghanistan to China was under the rule of the Kushanas.

  3. This route starting from Taxila crossing through Khyber Pass to Bamiyan in Afghanistan and from there to China through the plateau of Pamir.

  4. In the Kushana period, Buddhism reached China by this trade route.



The merchants rarely used the shorter line of the Silk Route.


SOLUTION

  1. One of the major lines of the Silk Route linked China and India and then extended further to Central Asia linking one oasis to the other in the desert.

  2. It was easier for the merchants and travellers to find accommodation and food in the oasis cities. They also found a ready market for their merchandise.

  3. Another line crossed through the stepped to the north of the main line. Journey on this line relatively shorter.

  4. It was rarely used by merchants as it was infested by troublesome pastoral tribes and hardly have any accommodation and food facilities on route.



Give your opinion.

There were close cultural association between the Gandhara region and India before the advent of Islam.



SOLUTION

  1. Gandhara was favourably situated on the trade route that linked India and Central Asia.

  2. It had close cultural connections with India from the ancient period of Janapadas till the introduction of Islam.

  3. Whether it was the invaders from Central Asia, or the Buddhist monks sent out by Emperor Ashoka, or the Chinese monks travelling to India, all had to pass through Afghanistan.

  4. Thus, there were close cultural association between the Gandhara region and India before the advent of Islam.



Write short notes.

Shahji-ki-Dheri



SOLUTION

  1. The Chinese monks like Fa-Hien, Yuan Chwang, who travelled through India have described the Buddhist viharas and stupas in India.

  2. There are numerous remains of viharas and stupas in Afghanistan. Among them, a place called 'Shahji-ki-Dheri' near Peshawar in Pakistan was excavated.

  3. This stupa was built during Kanishka's period.

  4. It is also known as 'Kanishaka's Stupa'. According to the prevailing tradition, the sacred remains in the box (karandaka) found there are of Gautama Buddha.

  5. The box has an inscription. It also mentions the name 'Agnishala', the main supervisor of the building work of 'Kanishka Vihara'.

  6. This box is in the Peshawar museum at present.



The Bamiyan Buddhas


SOLUTION

  1. The Bamiyan Buddhas are in Bamiyan, 250 km away from Kabul.

  2. About 750 caves have been hewn out in one of the cliffs of the mountain ranges known as 'Kuhe-Baba'.

  3. Beautiful murals have been painted inside these caves.

  4. The same cliff has niches of two standing Buddha statues in stucco. One of them was 53 metres tall the other was 38 metres.

  5. The core was plastered with several layers of mud mixed with straw. The folds of Gautama Buddha's robes were modelled in this clay plaster.

  6. Buddha's forearms were supported with the help of wooden armatures and fixed with wooden pegs.

  7. According to Yuan Chwang, the statues were surrounded by colourful murals and even the statues were painted with gold coating and precious stones.

  8. The 'Bamiyan Statues of Buddha' are declared as the World Cultural Heritage.



Answer the following question with the help of given points.

Write about the ties between ancient India and China.

  1. Trade relations

  2. The spread of Buddhism in China

  3. Serendian art style



SOLUTION

(a) Trade relations:

  1. The Silk Route links Asia and Europe. It runs more than 6000 km.

  2. It was easier for Merchants and travellers to find facilities for accommodation and food in the oasis cities.

  3. They also found a ready market for their merchandise.

  4. Another line crossed through the steppes to the north of this mainline. The journey on this line was relatively shorter.

  5. However, it was rarely used by merchants as it was infested by troublesome pastoral tribes and it hardly had any accommodation and food facilities en route.

(b) The spread of Buddhism in China:

  1. Buddhism spread in the 1st century C.E. This also introduced a new trend in tho Chinese art.

  2. Many of the Mahayana Buddhist monks who arrived in China hailed from Central Asia.

  3. Their presence in China inspired the making of images of Gautama Buddha and Bodhisattva.

(c) Serendian art style:

  1. Serendian art style that originated in the Xinjiang province is known as 'Serendian Art Style' (Seres meaning China + India).

  2. This art was influenced by Gandhara art. It presents a combination of Greek, Persian, and Chinese art forms.

  3. Many styles were brought to light during excavations by Sir Aurel Stein.

Balbharati Solutions for History 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board

 • Chapter 1: First Farmers

 • Chapter 2: First Cities of India

 • Chapter 3: Chalcolithic Villages in India

 • Chapter 4: Vedic Period

 • Chapter 5: Janapadas and Republics

 • Chapter 6: Second Urbanisation in India

 • Chapter 7: India and Iran (Persia)

 • Chapter 8: India during Mauryan period

 • Chapter 9: Post Mauryan India

 • Chapter 10: Changing Times

 • Chapter 11: Kingdoms in South India

 • Chapter 12: India, Nations in the northwest of the Indian Subcontinent and China

 • Chapter 13: India, Shri Lanka and Southeast Asia

 • Chapter 14: Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagar and Bahamani Kingdom

 • Chapter 15: India during Mughal period

 • Chapter 16: Swarajya to Empire (Maratha period)


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