Balbharati solutions for Secretarial Practice 11th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board chapter 1 - Secretary [Latest edition]

Chapter 1: Secretary

Select the correct answer from the options given below and rewrite the statement.


The word Secretary is derived from the Latin word __________ which means a confidential Writer.

OPTIONS

Amatya

Scribae

Secretarius



SOLUTION

The word Secretary is derived from the Latin word Secretarius which means a confidential Writer.



Only ________ can be appointed as a Secretary.

OPTIONS

An Individual

a Partnership firm

a Joint stock company.



SOLUTION

Only An Individual can be appointed as a Secretary.



A Secretary is a custodian of __________ information.

OPTIONS

confidential

individual

investigative



SOLUTION

A Secretary is a custodian of confidential information.



The Secretary of a Joint stock company should be a member of _____________ .

OPTIONS

IPS

ICSI

IAS



SOLUTION

The Secretary of a Joint stock company should be a member of ICSI.



___________is the oldest type of Secretary.

OPTIONS

Company Secretary

Personal Secretary

Secretary of Government Department



SOLUTION

Personal Secretary Is the oldest type of Secretary.


The main objective of a co-operative society is to _________the interest of its members.

OPTIONS

neglect

takeover

protect



SOLUTION

The main objective of a co-operative society is to protect the interest of its members.



Secretary of Government department must be a member of the __________

OPTIONS

ICSI

IAS

ICWA



SOLUTION

Secretary of Government department must be a member of the IAS.



________ means correctness in doing a work.

OPTIONS

Accuracy

Loyalty

Courteous



SOLUTION

Accuracy means correctness in doing a work.



Match the pairs:

 

Group ‘A’

1)

Group ‘B’

a)

Amatya

2)

Government department

b)

Ministry of Finance

3)

Paid employee

c)

Personal Secretary

4)

Appointed by busy persons

d)

Loyalty

5)

Roman empire

e)

Financial duties

6)

Maintainence of books of accounts

f)

Secretary

7)

Faithfulness

 

 

8)

Reveals information

 

 

9)

Appointed by co-operative societies

 

 

10)

Ancient Indian history

 

 

11)

Correspondence

 

 

12)

Free service

 

 

13)

Joint stock company



SOLUTION

 

Group ‘A’

1)

Group ‘B’

a)

Amatya

10)

Ancient Indian history

b)

Ministry of Finance

2)

Government department

c)

Personal Secretary

4)

Appointed by busy persons

d)

Loyalty

7)

Faithfulness

e)

Financial duties

6)

Maintainence of books of accounts

f)

Secretary

3)

Paid employee

 

 

5)

Roman empire

 

 

8)

Reveals information

 

 

10)

Ancient Indian history

 

 

11)

Correspondence

 

 

12)

Free service

 

 

13)

Joint stock company



Write a word or a term or a phrase which can substitute the following statement:


The term used in the Roman empire for a person who was a professional letter writer.


SOLUTION

Scribae



Sports club is an example of this type of organization.


SOLUTION

Non-profit association.



A Secretary appointed by an individual.


SOLUTION

 Personal secretary.



The quality that a Secretary should possess to be faithful to his organization.


SOLUTION

Loyalty



Latin word for Secretary.


SOLUTION

Loyalty



The company secretary must be a member of this organization.


SOLUTION

ICSI



The Secretary of a co-operative organization in Maharashtra must have knowledge of this Act.


SOLUTION

Maharashtra state cooperative societies Act in 1960.



An association that aims to protect the interest of its members.


SOLUTION

co-operative society.



State whether the following statement is True or False.




A Secretary is responsible only for typing letters.


OPTIONS

True


FalseThe Secretary of a Government department is the oldest type of Secretary.

OPTIONS

True

False



The Secretary should remain confidential about his organization.

OPTIONS

True

False



A Secretary also looks after routine and administrative duties.

OPTIONS

True

False



A Secretary is a paid employee.

OPTIONS

True

False





Chitins are a term used in the ancient Roman period.


OPTIONS

True

False 


A Secretary need not have knowledge of computers.

OPTIONS

True

False



Cultural Association is an example of Government department.

OPTIONS

True

False


Find the odd one


Secretarius, Scribae, ICSI, Chitnis.


SOLUTION

 ICSI



Leadership, IAS, Tactfulness.


SOLUTION

IAS



Complete the sentence.


In Latin language a confidential writer was called as _________.


SOLUTION

In Latin language a confidential writer was called as Secretarius.



The oldest type of Secretary is _________ secretary.


SOLUTION

The oldest type of Secretary is Personal secretary.



A company secretary must be a member of _______________.


SOLUTION

A company secretary must be a member of I.C.S.I. (Institute of company secretaries of India.)



Select the correct option:


Group A

Group ‘B’

___________

Personal Secretary

OPTIONS

IAS

Appointed by busy individuals

Roman Empire

Company Secretary




Group A

Group ‘B’

Secretary of Government Department

______________

OPTIONS

IAS

Appointed by busy individuals

Roman Empire

Company Secretary




Group A

Group ‘B’

ICSI

______________

OPTIONS

IAS

Appointed by busy individuals

Roman Empire

Company Secretary




Group A

Group ‘B’

___________

Scribae

OPTIONS

IAS

Appointed by busy individuals

Roman Empire

Company Secretary



Answer in one sentence.


Who can appoint a personal Secretary?


SOLUTION

A Secretary can be appointed by individuals such as doctors, Lawyers politicians, film actors, Joint stock companies etc.



Which company should appoint a full time company secretary?


SOLUTION

Every listed company and all other companies having a paid-up capital of 5 cores or more must appoint a full time company secretary.



A Cultural Club is an example of which type of organisation?


SOLUTION

A Cultural Club is an example of non-profit organisation.



The knowledge of which Act 15 must for a secretary of cooperative Society?


SOLUTION

The knowledge of the Co-operative Societies Act is must for a secretary of co-operative society.



Correct the underlined word and rewrite the following sentence.


Personal Secretary is appointed by a Joint Stock Company.


SOLUTION

Personal Secretary is appointed by the busy individuals like doctor, film actors etc. 



Busy individuals appoint company secretary.

SOLUTION

Busy individuals appoint Personal secretary.


Secretary of a Government Department must be a member of ICSI.


SOLUTION

Secretary of a Government Department must be a member of Indian administration services (IAS).



The term chitins was used in Roman Empire.


SOLUTION

The term chitins was used in Ancient Indian history.



Explain the following term/concept:


Secretary


SOLUTION

(1) The term ‘Secretary’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Secretarius’ or the French word ‘Secretarie’, both meaning a confidential writer.

(2) A secretary is an individual appointed by another individual or an organisation to collect and record essential information and to assist the employer in carrying out his work smoothly.



Confidential officer


SOLUTION

(1) The term ‘confidence’ implies trust in a person or thing. Accordingly, confidential officer means officer, with whom one (employer) shares secret or private matters, trusting them not to reveal it to others.

(2) The Secretary is trusted servant (officer) of his employer or organisation. He is a custodian of secret, confidential and important information of his employer or organisation.

(3) Being a confidential officer, a secretary is closely associated with the top management and also involved in execution of policy decisions, he is not expected to reveal secret information to others unless required or authorised to do so.



Compliance officer


SOLUTION

(1) Compliance officer means a specialist. He is an employee charged with the responsibility to ensure that a company follows external regulations and its own internal guidelines.

(2) Being a compliance officer, a secretary is responsible for compliance with legal requirements on behalf of his employer or organisation.

(3) So, a secretary has to perform a number of statutory functions such as to file annual returns, maintain the register of members, Books of accounts, minutes book and other registers, pay tax to the government, etc.

(4) He has also to comply with the requirements of other laws like Stamp Act, Registration Act, Labour Laws, MRTP Act, Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act and so on.



Tactfulness


SOLUTION

(1) The term ‘tact’ means skill in dealing with people or handling difficult situation. It is an ability of a person to handle a situation in a right manner.

(2) A secretary must be tactful because he has to face unexpected and difficult situations. He knows the secret of his employer or the organization and without disclosing them he has to keep others happy.

(3) The secretary should know the art of getting work done without offending others (i.e. diplomatically) Secretary has to present the unpleasant facts in a most acceptable form. This is possible with tact alone. He will be able to secure co-operation from others, only if he is tactful.



Loyalty


SOLUTION

1) Loyalty means faithfulness. This quality implies that the secretary must be true and faithful to his employer or organisation.

(2) Being a confident of his employer or organisation a secretary should not disclose matter of secrecy to anyone at any cost.

(3) Being a loyal person, a secretary must protect the interest of his employer or organisation in all possible ways and under all circumstances. He should give priority only to organizational goals.



Study the following case/situation and express your opinion


Rajiv and Sanjiv have applied for the post of Company Secretary at Pharma India Pvt. Ltd.Rajiv has an experience of 10 years as a personal Secretary. He later worked as a Secretary at Venus Co-operative bank for 2 years. Sanjiv has passed his CS examination and is a member of ICSI. He has no working experience. Rajiv is only a commerce graduate.


Who is better suited for the above post? Justify your answer


SOLUTION

(1) Sanjiv is better suited for the post of company secretary at Pharma India Pvt. Ltd.

(2) As per Section 203 of the Companies Act. 2013 the Company Secretary must be a member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI). Sanjiv is an associate member of ICSI. In addition to this he has also passed Civil Services (CS) examination. Hence, Sanjiv is better suited for the post of Company Secretary. Rajiv is only a commerce graduate and has experience of 10 years as a personal secretary, but he is not associate member of ICSI. Hence, Rajiv is not suited for the post of company secretary.



Rajiv and Sanjiv have applied for the post of Company Secretary at Pharma India Pvt. Ltd.Rajiv has an experience of 10 years as a personal Secretary. He later worked as a Secretary at Venus Co-operative bank for 2 years. Sanjiv has passed his CS examination and is a member of ICSI. He has no working experience. Rajiv is only a commerce graduate.


Can Rajiv be selected as a Personal Assistant for one of the Directors?


SOLUTION

 Rajiv can be selected as Personal Assistant for one of the Directors. This is because a personal secretary as such does not require any specific qualification. Rajiv is a commerce graduate and has an experience of 10 years as a personal secretary.



Rajiv and Sanjiv have applied for the post of Company Secretary at Pharma India Pvt. Ltd.Rajiv has an experience of 10 years as a personal Secretary. He later worked as a Secretary at Venus Co-operative bank for 2 years. Sanjiv has passed his CS examination and is a member of ICSI. He has no working experience. Rajiv is only a commerce graduate.


Can Rajiv be appointed as Secretary to Pharma India Pvt. Ltd.?


SOLUTION

Rajiv cannot be appointed as Secretary to Pharma India Pvt. Ltd. This is because he is not a, member of ICSI.



Harshada has cleared her CS examination and intends to make her career as a Secretary at the Government department.


Can she apply for the post of a Secretary at Government Department?

SOLUTION

 Harshada cannot apply for the post of a Secretary at Government Department. Although she has cleared her Civil Services (CS) examination, she is not in Indian Administrative Services (IAS) which is an essential requirement for the post of a secretary at Government Department.



Harshada has cleared her CS examination and intends to make her career as a Secretary at the Government department.


Can she be appointed as the Secretary of ABC Ltd.?


SOLUTION

Harshada cannot be appointed as the Secretary of ABC Ltd. if ABC Ltd. is a company. This is because she is not associate member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI).



Harshada has cleared her CS examination and intends to make her career as a Secretary at the Government department.


As a Company Secretary will Harshada be considered as an employee?


SOLUTION

Harshada will not be considered as an employee for a Company Secretary. She is not associate member of ICSI



Distinguish between the following:


Personal secretary and company secretary.


SOLUTION

Personal secretary

Company secretary

Any individual employed by a busy person to look after his official, professional, private and personal work is called a personal secretary.

According to the companies act 1956, any individual processing the prescribed qualification and appointed to performed the duties of a secretary under the act and any other ministerial or administration duties ,is called a company secretary.

There is no prescribed qualification for the appointment of Personal Secretary. However, he is required to have the knowledge of information technology, book-keeping and office routine

The secretary shall have the prescribed qualification and should be a member from the Institute of Company Secretaries of India.(ICSI)

A Personal Secretary is appointed by busy ‘individuals such as industrialists, doctors, lawyers, actors, ministers, political leaders, businessmen, etc.

A Company Secretary is appointed by the Board of Directors of the company. His appointment is compulsory by law in case of company having paid up capital of Rs 5 core or more.

Personal Secretary has no legal status

Company Secretary has a legal status.

He is personal assistant of his boss or employer.

He is the chief executive officer of the company and one of the Key Managerial Personnel (KMP).

He is given limited powers by his boss or employer.

He derives certain powers from the Companies Act and certain powers from the Board of Directors.



Secretary of a Co-operative Society and Secretary of a Government department


SOLUTION

Secretary of a Co-operative Society

Secretary of a Government department

An elected member from among the members of the managing committee of a co-operative society or paid officer appointed to perform the duties of a secretary is called secretary of a co-operative society.

An officer whose business is to work under the guidance and direction of minister to carry out the administrative affairs of a particular ministry is called a secretary of Government department.

A secretary of a co-operative society is appointed by the managing committee of the co-operative society.

A secretary of a Government department is appointed by the State or Central Government

There is no prescribed qualification. He should have a good knowledge of the Co-operation we Societies Act and should be at least graduate.

The secretary must be graduate and should pass the Civil Services (CS) examination and be in Indian Administrative Services. (IAS).

His duties and responsibilities are governed by the Co-operative Societies Act, 1960 and the by-laws of the society

He is required to assist the minister in making and of taking right policy decisions and to look after the work of his concerned department/ministry.

His post is fixed for a particular co-operative society hence he cannot be transferred from one co- operative society to another.

Being a government servant, he can be transferred from one Government department to another as per the government policy.

The main objective is to protect and assist in safeguarding the common interest of the members.

The main objective is to assist in carrying out administrative work under control of the ministers of their concerned departments.



Company Secretary and Secretary of a Government department


SOLUTION

Company Secretary

Secretary of a Government department

According to the Companies Act

1956, any individual possessing the prescribed qualifications and appointed to perform the duties of a Secretary under the Act and any other ministerial or administrative duties, is called a Company Secretary.

An officer whose business is to work under the guidance and direction of minister to carry out the administrative affairs of a particular ministry is called secretary of Government department.

A company secretary is appointed by the Board of Directors of the company.

A secretary of a Government department is appointed by the Prime Minister (Central Government) and the Chief Minister (State Government).

He must be an associate member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI).

He must have passed the (IAS) Indian Administrative Service examination.

He is the chief administrative (executive) officer of the company and one Key Managerial Personnel (KMP). He assists the Board of Directors.

He is administrative and executive officer of the Government department. He is a government servant. He assists the minister.

Main purpose is to assist the Board of Directors in formulating policies taking decisions and carrying out executive functions.

Main purpose is to assist the minister in taking right policy decisions, formulating policies and in carrying out administrative work of the concerned Government department.

His post is fixed for a particular company and hence he cannot be transferred from one company to other company.

Being a government servant, he can be transfer from one Government department to another as per the government



Secretary of Non-profit association and Secretary of Co-operative society


SOLUTION

Secretary of Non-profit Association

Secretary of a Co-operative Society

An elected member from among the members of the executive committee of a non-profit association or paid officer appointed to perform the duties of a secretary is called secretary of a non-profit association.

An elected member from among the members of the managing committee of a co-operative society or paid officer appointed to perform the duties of a secretary is called secretary of a co-Operative society

He is appointed by the managing committee of nonprofit association.

He is appointed by the managing committee of a co. operative society.

The qualifications of the secretary depend on the nature of its activity. He should have knowledge of English, accounting, banking operations, legal knowledge and current developments.

There has no prescribed qualifications. He should have a good knowledge of the Co-operative Societies Act and should be at least graduate.

Usually he is a member of the managing committee. He may be working on small basis or honorarium basis.

He may be a member of the society working in an honorary capacity or may be an outsider appointed on a salary basis.

His duties and responsibilities are governed by the rules laid down by the managing committee of the association.

His duties and responsibilities are governed by the Co-operative Societies Act, 1960 and the by-laws of the society.

To assist or help the managing committee in promoting the activities of the non-profit association.

To assist or help managing committee in its official work and to safeguard and protect the common interest of the members of society.



Describe any four qualities of a secretary?


SOLUTION

A Secretary requires certain qualities to be able to fulfill the employer’s organization’s goals. They are as:-

Accuracy- Accuracy means correctness. He must ensure that his work of drafting letters, recording minutes, maintaining records etc. is accurate without any mistakes. “ACCURACY” is one of the qualities of Ideal secretary.

Adaptability- Change is law of nature. It is one of the key skills or factor to adjust oneself to the changing situation. The situation changes due to government policies, management policies etc.

Cooperativeness- The secretary must have a strong attitude to be cooperative with every member, customer and government official. He must help his subordinates and try to solve their problems. This will help in developing team spirit and togetherness in the organization.

Courtesy- Courtesy means politeness and kindness. He should be courtesy while dealing with people and this creates a positive impression about the employer and the organization.

Initiative- Initiativeness implies taking efforts voluntarily to accomplish a task. Secretary is one of the important employees of the organization. He has to initiative to take quick and right decisions if the employers are not present.

Leadership- Leadership is an important quality for a secretary as he is required to get the work done through others. A secretary should have the ability to guide, advise, inspire and motivate others to complete their work in proper manner. It will help in creating team spirit.

Loyalty- Loyalty means faithfulness. Being a confidential officer, a secretary must be true, loyal and faithful to his job and organization. He should not disclose or reveal secret matters or information to outsiders. He should give top priority only to organizational goals.

Orderliness- : Orderliness means doing everything in a systematic or methodical manner. This helps the secretary to complete the work or job on time and in proper order.

Pleasing Personality- A secretary should have a pleasing personality. The secretary has to deal with different individuals such as the Board of Directors, employees of the organization, shareholders, investors, government authorities, press and many others. Pleasing personality reflects a person’s character, way of talking, manners, temper, confidence etc.

Knowledge seeker- It is important that the secretary keeps upgrading the knowledge so that he can perform statutory functions.

Punctuality- Punctuality refers to doing things or acting at appointed time. The secretary must complete the work assigned to him within given time limit. That will motivate all the office staff to be equally punctual. The secretary should have a good time management.

Tactfulness- Tactfulness is the ability of a person to handle a situation in a right manner. A secretary must be tactful because he has to face unexpected and difficult situations. He knows the secrets of his superior or the organization and without disclosing them he has to keep others happy. He will be able to secure Co-operation from others, only if he is tactful.



State any four functions of a Secretary.


SOLUTION

The functions of a Secretary are explained as follows:

(1) Correspondence: A secretary has to check and look after the inward and outward mail and registers. He has to give reply to inquiries from outsiders, government departments, and other stakeholders. He is also required to check and look after the different records of the organisation.

(2) Office management: A secretary has to organise, manage, and control office staff and office work. He has to guide and supervise the office staff for smooth working. He has to keep in custody the important books and registers and all office appliances in good condition. He is also required to look after training, promotion and transfer of the office employees.

(3) Reception function: A secretary is required to perform the following functions:-

(1) To attend to telephone calls of his employer and to note and communicate messages of outside parties.

(2) To receive the visitors cordially and to look after their conveniences and facilities. To note the names of the visitors and the purpose of their visits particularly in the case of Visitors who come without prior appointment. He has to inform his employer about the visit of such a visitor and act as per his instructions.

(3) To fix the appointment date, day and time of his employer with the outside parties as per his instructions.

(4) To keep a daily diary of his employer for recording the particulars of all the visitors and visits.

(4) Financial functions: A secretary has to perform the following financial functions:

(1) To handle banking transactions such as depositing and Withdrawal of cash, demand drafts, and cheques into the bank.

(2) To make payment of insurance premiums, ' income tax, bills, subscriptions, electricity charges, other expenses, etc., on behalf of his employer.

(3) To prepare and maintain income and expenditure accounts, investments records, etc. He has to keep watch on receipts and payments.

(4) To file and submit income tax returns of his employer.

(5) To provide financial information to employer management, banks, and government.

(5) Arranging meetings: A secretary has to arrange (convene) and conduct meetings between employer/management and other parties. He has to arrange annual general meetings for shareholders: meetings of the Board of Directors and meetings of the managing committee. He is also required to draft notices, agenda and minutes of the meetings.



Mention any four features of secretary?


SOLUTION

The features of a secretary are explained as follows:

(1) Individual: Only individuals can be appointed as secretary of the organization. An individual is always a living person. A firm or a body corporate like a company or any other institution cannot work as secretary. He has to be an individual as per the provisions of the Company Law. The skills required to fulfill the duties and responsibilities towards the employers.

(2) Qualification: In order to perform the assigned duties more effectively, every secretary needs to possess sound educational qualifications and certain qualities. However, a person to be appointed as a secretary in any institution needs to possess some prescribed qualification according to the provisions made in the Act applicable to that institution.

(3) Appointment: As per the provisions of law, the appointment of a secretary may be compulsory or optional. He may work on a full time or a part-time basis. He may be appointed by busy individuals, a company, a co-operative society, a government, a public organisation, etc. He may be appointed as personal secretary or institutional secretary.

(4) Paid employee: The secretary is a paid employee of an organization or a person. He is either paid salary or given honorarium (professional fees). He is a senior executive official. He occupies a key position in the organization. He carries out work according to the direction of his employer.

(5) Duties: A secretary performs routine and administrative duties such as conducting correspondence, maintaining accounts and records of business operations, assisting the chairman while conducting meetings, writing the minutes of the meetings, complying with the statutory requirements, if any. He has to fulfill routine duties related towards employer or organisation like fixing appointments. Giving reminders, replying queries of employees, etc.

(6) Confidential officer: The secretary is a trusted servant of his employer or organisation. He is a custodian of secret, confidential and important information of his employer or organisation. As he is closely associated with the top management and also involved in execution of policy decision, he has to maintain utmost secrecy and is not expected to divulge secret information to others.

(7) Representative: A secretary represents his employer or organisation. He acts as a representative of the organisation. There are two types of secretaries, viz.

(i) a personal secretary and

(ii) an institutional secretary.

A person who is employed by a busy person is called a personal secretary. An individual appointed as a secretary by an institution is called an institutional secretary.

(8) Qualities: Every secretary must possess certain qualities of head and heart such as accuracy, tact, leadership, courtesy, good health, winsome personality, strong common sense, ability to judge people, etc, so as to perform numerous functions and duties more efficiently and effectively.



Justify the following statement:


A secretary should be courteous and have a pleasing personality.


SOLUTION

(1) Apart from academic qualification, a secretary should possess certain qualities to enable him to fulfill his employer’s or organisation’s goals. A secretary should be courteous. Courtesy implies polite behaviour and pleasing manners and kindness.

(2) The secretary is required to get the work done from the staff, he has to deal with the people of different temperaments and he has to create a positive impression about the employer and the organisation. To achieve all these goals the secretary must show courtesy in words and action towards the staff, employer, members of the society, and others.

(3) The secretary has to deal with different individuals such as the Board of Directors, employees of the organisation, shareholders, investors, government authorities, press, and many others. Therefore, the secretary must possess a very pleasing, impressive, and positive personality to do the work more efficiently and effectively.

(4) The pleasing personality of the secretary always helps to build up and boost his and his employer’s or organisation’s image. Pleasing personality reflects a person’s character, way of talking, manners, temper, confidence, etc.



A secretary is considered as a paid employee.


SOLUTION

(1) A secretary is a person who handles correspondence, keeps records and does general clerical work for an individual or an organisation. A secretary has to act within the powers delegated to him by his employer or the management or the managing body. He is supposed to do only what he has been asked to do by his employer or the management. He, thus, works according to the directions, desires and instructions of his employer or the Directors. He has no decision-making power. As an employee he faithfully executes the decisions of the management.

(2) As per the provisions of law, the appointment of a secretary may be compulsory or optional. He is not a member of the organisation. He may work on a full-time or a part-time basis. He is either paid a salary or given an honorarium (i.e. a fees or a payment given for services rendered).

(3) From the legal point of view, a secretary is a paid employee or an officer of an organisation or individual. Law does not give any independent powers or authorities to secretary. He is a senior executive official. He occupies a key position in the organisation. Sometimes, he even acts as an adviser to the management.



Only individuals can be secretaries?


SOLUTION

 (1) A secretary is an individual appointed by another individual or individuals or an organisation to collect and record essential information and to assist the employer in carrying out his work smoothly.

(2) In modern times, a secretary performs a number of functions such as conducting correspondence, maintaining accounts and records of business operations, assisting the Chairman while conducting meetings, writing the minutes of the meetings and complying with the statutory requirements, if any.

(3) A secretary may be appointed by a busy person or a company or a cooperative society or a government department or even a non-profit making institution. He has to execute the plans and policies according to the directives of the Board of Directors or the Managing Committee.

(4) A corporate body or any other institution or company or a firm although recognized as a person under the provision of laws cannot work as a secretary because it does not have body, soul, feelings, judgement creativity, thinking ability or decision-making power. It cannot perform any function as like an individual or human being. Hence the secretary is always an individual. 



A secretary is a link between the staff and management.


SOLUTION

(1) In every business organisation, the secretary acts as a bridge or connecting link between the management and staff. For the prosperity, growth and development of the organisation, a secretary has to establish an effective and proper communication and co-ordination between the management and the staff of the organisation at different levels.

(2) The executives, president, managing directors, etc. working at the top level remain extremely busy. They may never come in contact with the employees working at different levels of the organisation to understand their views, problems grievances, demands and suggestions. This gap of communication is tilled up by the secretary by performing the role of liaison (communication between people or groups who work with each other) officer.

(3) As a liaison officer or connecting link between the staff and management, a secretary communicates the policy decisions, plans, and views of the management to the staff. He also conveys to the management by way of positive feedback, the problems, grievances, demands, difficulties, and suggestions of the staff in implementing the decisions of the management.

(Note: Above Textual Question is corrected.)



A personal secretary is appointed by busy individuals?


SOLUTION

A personal secretary is an individual who is employed by a busy person to look after his official and personal work is called a personal secretary. A personal secretary is also called a Private Secretary or a Personal Assistant (P. A.).



Define a secretary and explain the importance of secretary?


SOLUTION

Definition of Secretary: According to Collins English Dictionary, a Secretary is a person who handles correspondence, keeps records, and does general clerical work for an individual or an organisation.

The term Secretary can be defined as “A Secretary is a trustworthy official appointed by a busy person or a firm or a body corporate or a non-profit-making organization or government.

In modern times a secretary has greater status and importance in an organization. This is because of the ever-changing and never ending demands of today’s business world.

The importance of a Secretary is explained as follows:

(1) Expert advice and guidance: As a secretary is closely associated with all the aspects of business operations, his opinions, observations and views are always considered valuable by the t0p management while taking policy decisions. Thus, a secretary acts as an advisor to the management and helps the management in taking correct policy decisions. He also provides guidance to the management and helps in growth and development of the organisation.

(2) Administration: A secretary holds a key position in the administrative set-up of every organisation because he looks after the routine office administration of the business which includes office management, documentation of important issues, attending telephone calls, replying official mails, attending to visitors, etc. The executives i.e., president, managing director, etc. working at the t0p level remain extremely busy. They have no time to devote to routine administrative matters. A secretary relieves their burden and enables them to concentrate on more important issues relating to business policies and matters.

(3) Custodian of secret information: A secretary is a custodian of confidential or secret information. As a trusted servant of the organisation, he has to maintain utmost secrecy. He works as per the directions and desires of the employer or the organisation. As he is closely associated with the top management, he arranges and attends all the meetings of the Board and Committees where important and confidential decisions are taken. He has to maintain secrecy of all such decisions and information.

(4) Correspondent: Being an administrative officer of an organisation, a secretary has to conduct correspondence with the different stake holders such as members, directors, customers, banks, lenders, investors, insurance companies, registrar, government authorities, etc. on behalf of the organization. He is required to draft different types of letter and e-mail skillfully so as to develop good reputation of his organisation. He is also required to handle inward and outward correspondence.

(5) Legal compliance officer: A secretary is required to comply with the legal requirements of his organisation. He has to prepare and maintain certain statutory books and registers in accordance with the provisions of applicable laws. He has to file returns and statements to the government authorities within the stipulated time as lay down by the applicable Act.

(6) Vital role in conducting meetings: As per the directives of the Board of Directors, a secretary has to arrange and conduct various types of meetings. He is required to perform necessary duties before, during and after. The meetings which include preparation of notices and agenda, sending notices with agenda to concerned parties, preparing minutes, etc.

(7) Link between management and staff: In every business organisation, secretary acts as a bridge or connecting link between the management and staff of the organisation. He has to establish an effective and proper communication and coordination between the management and the staff at different levels.

(8) Fulfilment of secretarial standards and secretarial audit: The main objectives of secretarial standards and secretarial audit are to check whether the company is adhering to the legal and procedural requirement. Secretary has to make compliance with the secretarial standards and secretarial audit.



Explain the features of a secretary.


SOLUTION

The features of a secretary are explained as follows:

(1) An individual: The secretary is always an individual, Le. A living person. A firm or a body corporate like a company or any other institution cannot work as secretary. Only an individual can be appointed and can work as a secretary.

(2) Qualification: In order to perform the assigned duties more effectively, every secretary needs to possess sound educational qualifications and certain qualities. However, a person to be appointed as a secretary in any institution needs to possess some prescribed qualification according to the provisions made in the Act applicable to that institution.

(3) Appointment: As per the provisions of law, the appointment of a secretary may be compulsory or optional. He may work on a full time or a part time basis. He may be appointed by busy individuals, a company, a co-operative society, a government, public organisation, etc. He may be appointed as personal secretary or institutional secretary.

(4) Paid employee: The secretary is a paid employee of an organisation or a person. He is either paid salary or given honorarium. He is a senior executive official. He occupies a key position in the organisation. He carries out work according to the direction of his employer.

(5) Duties: A secretary performs routine and administrative duties such as conducting correspondence, maintaining accounts and records of business operations, assisting the chairman while conducting meetings, writing the minutes of the meetings, complying with the statutory requirements, if any. He has to fulfill routine duties related towards employer or organisation like fixing appointments, giving reminders, replying queries of employees, etc.

(6) Confidential officer: The secretary is a trusted servant of his employer or organisation. He is a custodian of secret, confidential and important information of his employer or organisation. As he is closely associated with the top management and also involved in execution of policy decision, he has to maintain utmost secrecy and is not expected to divulge secret information to others.

(7) Representative: A secretary represents his employer or organisation. He acts as a representative of the organisation. There are two types of secretaries, viz. (1) a personal secretary and (2) an institutional secretary. A person who is employed by busy person is called personal secretary. An individual appointed as secretary by an institution is called institutional secretary.

(8) Qualities: Every secretary must possess certain qualities of head and heart such as accuracy, tact, leadership, courtesy, good health, winsome personality, strong common sense, ability to judge people, etc, so as to perform numerous functions and duties more efficiently and effectively.



Describe the qualities of a secretary?


SOLUTION

The qualities of a secretary are explained as follows:

(1) Accuracy: Accuracy implies correctness. The secretary must be accurate in keeping records and maintaining books of accounts, drafting the letters, reports, circulars, minutes, documents, collecting and supplying information, etc. It helps to build confidence in the secretary and in turn builds up reputation of the organisation or employer.

(2) Adaptability: Adaptability implies the ability to adjust or adapt oneself readily to the changing situations or conditions. A secretary has to face new situations, accept new duties and come in contact with people of different temperament. If he is adaptable, he can deal with all such changes more efficiently and easily. In particular, a private secretary has to adapt himself to the habits, working style, routine and moods of his employer.

(3) Co-operativeness: The secretary must have a strong attitude to be co-operative with every member, customer and government official. Lack of this quality in the secretary makes it difficult for him to develop voluntary co-operation among the subordinates.

(4) Courtesy: Courtesy means politeness and kindness. The secretary must show courtesy in words and action towards the members of the society and others.

(5) Initiative: Initiativeness implies taking efforts voluntarily to accomplish a task. Sometimes. a secretary is required to take independent decisions on the spot, particularly in the absence of his boss or employer. He must see to it that his decisions are in the best interest of his employer or organisation. For this purpose, a secretary should have the quality of the initiative to accept responsibilities.

(6) Leadership: Leadership means the ability to induce, influence, and guide subordinates to work willingly and also to undertake new projects. Secretary has to execute the policy decisions taken by the top management through his employees. The secretary should possess the quality of leadership to create team spirit among the stail' and to achieve the objectives of the organisation. Lack of this quality makes the secretary stagnant and dependable.

(7) Loyalty: The quality of loyalty implies faithfulness. Being a confidential officer, a secretary must be true, loyal and faithful to his job and organisation. He should not disclose or divulge secret matters or information to outsiders. He must protect the interest of his employer or organisation in all possible ways and under all circumstances.

(8) Orderliness: Orderliness means doing everything in a systematic or methodical manner. Quality of, orderliness helps the secretary to complete the work or job in time and in proper order.

(9) Pleasing personality: The secretary has to deal With different individuals such as the Board of Directors, employees of the organisation, shareholders, investors, government authorities, press and many others. Therefore, the secretary must possess a very pleasing, impressive and winsome personality to do the work more efficiently and effectively. The pleasing personality of secretary always helps to build up and boost his and his employer’s or organisation’s image. Pleasing personality reflects a person’s character, way of talking, manners, temper, confidence, etc.

(10) Punctuality: Punctuality refers to doing things or acting at appointed time. The secretary must complete the work assigned to him within given time limit. Though a secretary is the chief executive officer of the organisation, he himself must be punctual first. That will motivate all the office staff to be equally punctual. The secretary must be punctual in his visits outside the office.

(11) Tactfulness: A secretary must be tactful because he has to face unexpected and difficult situations. He knows the secrets of his superior or the organisation and without divulging them he has to keep others happy. He can deal with such delicate situations only with tact. He has to present the unpleasant facts in a most acceptable form. This is possible .with tact alone. He will be able to secure co-operation from others, only if he is tactful.



Explain briefly the various types of Institutional secretaries.


SOLUTION

A secretary who is appointed by an institution such as a company, co-operative society, non-profit association, etc., is called an Institutional secretary. The different types of the institutional secretary are explained below :

(A) Secretary of Non-profit Association:

(a) Meaning: The member from among the elected members of the executive committee or a paid officer whose business is to work under the guidance and direction of the president and managing committee to carry out the administrative affairs of a particular non-profit association is called secretary of non-profit association.

(b) Appointment: According to the size and nature of a non-profit association. A secretary appointed may be on a full time or part time basis. He may be on salary basis or may work honorary.

(c) Qualifications: The qualifications of the secretary of a non-profit association depend on the nature of its activities. However broadly such a secretary should have knowledge of

(1) English and other regional languages

(2) Specialised field of activity of the association

(3) Office organisation, accounting, banking operations

(4) Procedure of conducting meetings

(5) Correspondence

(6) Current developments

(7) Some legal knowledge, etc.

(d) Functions: A secretary of a non-profit association has to perform the following functions:

(1) Admission of members

(2) Collecting fees and subscriptions from members

(3) Conduct correspondence with ' different stakeholders

(4) Convene and conduct meetings of the managing committee and the members

(5) Maintain statutory books, registers and accounts

(6) Supervise and control the staff and look after office management

(7) Prepare annual budget of the organisation.


(B) Secretary of a Co-operative Society:

(a) Meaning: It is compulsory for every Co-operative Society to appoint a secretary. Any individual or member of the society possessing prescribed qualifications and employed to perform duties as per the provisions of the Co-operative Societies Act, 1960, is called Secretary of a Co-operative Society.

(b) Appointment: Usually a member of the managing committee acts or appointed as a secretary of a co-operative society. Generally, such secretary work on honorary basis. If it is a large organisation, managing committee appoints a separate person as a secretary on salary basis.

(c) Qualification : The qualifications of a Co-operative Secretary are : (1) Minimum a graduate in arts, science, commerce or law (2) Degree 'or diploma in Co-operation (3) Knowledge of Co-operative laws (4) Proficiency in the held of activity of the Society (5) Command over languages (6) Knowledge of operating the computer (7) Knowledge of the procedure of conducting meetings (8) Knowledge of office management (9) Knowledge of public relations.

(d) Functions: The functions of a secretary of a Co-operative Society are: (1) Office administration (2) Conduct correspondence with members, members of managing committee, outsiders and government departments. (3) Prepare and maintain statutory books. registers, documents, etc. File returns, annual accounts, documents to registrar of co-operative societies (4) Convene and conduct meetings of

the managing committee and the members (5) Finalize annual accounts and get those accounts audited from qualified auditors.


(C) Secretary of Joint Stock Company:

(a) Meaning: According to the Companies Act 1956, any individual possessing the prescribed qualifications and appointed to perform the duties of a secretary under the Act and any other ministerial or administrative duties, is called a Company Secretary.

(b) Appointment: A company secretary is appointed by the Board of Directors of the company. His appointment is compulsory by law in case of company having paid-up capital of Rs 5 crore or more.

(c) Qualification: A secretary of a joint stock company must be the member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India. Besides, it is advisable if he has knowledge of all the business laws.

(1) Functions: A company secretary is primarily responsible for the secretarial and statutory work of the company. The functions or duties of the company secretary are follows: (1) Functions related to the administration (2) Statutory functions (3) Functions related to the share holders and (4) Functions related to the directors.

(4) Secretary of Government Department:

(a) Meaning: An officer whose business is to work under the guidance and direction of the minister to carry out the administrative affairs of a particular ministry is called a secretary of a government department.

(b) Appointment: A secretary is appointed for each department to work under the direction of the minister for implementing the policy decisions taken by the ministry. The prime minister and the chief minister appoint the secretaries in various departments of the Central Government and the State Government respectively.

(c) Qualifications: The secretary of a Government department being a permanent Government servant must have passed the IAS (Indian Administrative Service) Examination. It is advisable that he has a postgraduate degree in law and sociology. Besides, it is expected that he has a thorough knowledge of current affairs, languages, human relation and information technology.

(d) Functions: The secretary of the Government department has to perform the following functions:

(1) To assist the minister in making and taking the right policy decisions and helps him in the formulation of policies.

(2) To act as a valuable adviser and guide to the minister in providing workable solutions in the execution of policies.

(3) To prepare plans for the execution of policies.

(4) To provide necessary and accurate information to the minister so as to enable him to answer the questions raised in Parliament and Assembly.

(5) To look after the general administration of the department.

(6) To prepare and submit periodical reports such as annual progress reports of the activities and annual budget of the department.

(7) To conduct meetings of the department.

(8) To receive forei§1 dignitaries and delegations and visit the department.

(9) To hold press conferences, etc.


Balbharati Solutions for Secretarial Practice 11th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board Chapter-wise List - Free

Chapter 1: Secretary

Chapter 2: Joint Stock Company

Chapter 3: Formation of a company

Chapter 4: Documents related to formation of a company

Chapter 5: Members of a company

Chapter 6: Directors and Key Managerial personnel of a company

Chapter 7: Company Meetings - 1

Chapter 8: Company Meetings - 2

Chapter 9: Business Communication Skills of Secretary

Chapter 10: Correspondence with Directors

Chapter 11: Correspondence with Banks

Chapter 12: Correspondence with Statutory Authorities


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