Bio Diversity And Its Conservation Class 8th Biology AP Board Solution

Class 8th Biology AP Board Solution
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  1. Read this and answer the following questions. Biodiversity-2050. A news item on…
  2. How can you say that forests are biosphere reserves? Give reasons.…
  3. What do you understand about the terms (a) Extinct (b) Endangered (c) Endemic. Give…
  4. What is the scientific reason behind bird’s migration?
  5. Identify the endemic and endangered species and write them against the pictures.…
  6. What is the need of conducting biodiversity meet? Collect information about these meetings…
  7. Now-a-days we find animals like leopards and bears intruding into our living places. What…
  8. Make a list of animals /birds seen now and 30 years ago. Take the help of your elders.…
  9. Select an area in your locality. Observe the animals (living and visiting) for a day.…
  10. When tree is considered as an ecosystem, record the flora and fauna connected with it.…
  11. Browse through the internet or books on wild life and gather information on bird…
  12. Visit local forest office and collect the data of local flora and fauna.…
  13. Where do you find most of the biodiversity on the earth? Draw AP map showing maximum…
  14. What do you understand by biodiversity? How can you say variations are present in them?…
  15. Most of our biodiversity is being lost due to human activities. Suggest few ways to…
  16. When you see a park, sanctuary or a zoo with many kinds of plants and animals, how would…
  17. Prepare an essay to give a talk on biodiversity and conservation.…
  18. Rani said conservation of biodiversity starts from our home. Is she correct? How do you…
  19. When we take steps towards conserving the tiger, what are the other things that have to be…
  20. Prepare some slogans or a pamphlet to make aware of people about conservation of…

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Question 1.

Read this and answer the following questions.

Biodiversity-2050.

A news item on Biodiversity discussed by Conference of parties (CoP) -2012-Hyd says in the next four decades the earth’s natural resources will be limited to grass lands, mountains, ice and arid and semi-arid plains.

By 2050 the loss of Biodiversity will lead to unprecedented. Climate change would be the key factor. Nearly 1.3 million natural ecosystems will be without any original species.

(The coloured areas are indicators of biodiversity loss. The red areas show maximum biodiversity loss.)



(Courtesy CoP-2012 on biodiversity-Hyderabad)

(a) What does the areas with colour codes indicate?

(b) Which areas show maximum biodiversity loss?

(c) Which areas show minimum biodiversity loss?

(d) From 2010-2050 what difference do you find in the state of biodiversity?

(e) So what steps would you suggest to conserve our biodiversity?


Answer:

(a) The areas with colour codes indicates biodiversity loss.


(b) Western parts of united states, mexico till equador, few northern parts of india.


(c) Western, eastern and southern parts of india,western psarts of united states, northern and western part of Asia.


(d) 1) Loss of biodiversity is a result of human activities, represented by the disappearance of populations of original species in natural ecosystems, with an increase in the population of some opportunistic species.


2) As species disappear from ecosystems, they become more homogenous with a subsequent loss of biodiversity.


3) Biodiversity loss have changed over the years, from the overexploitation and conversion of natural habitats for agriculture in the past to the more recent trends of converting natural habitats for urban use and the introduction of invasive alien species.


4) By 2050, major changes will be driven by climate change and expanding urbanization.



(e) In our country we have forest areas demarcated as national sanctuaries reserved forests and parks to conserve different types of flora and fauna. Government of India has taken initiative to conserve wildlife by making National parks and Sanctuaries to conserve forest, flora and fauna from being destroyed.



Question 2.

How can you say that forests are biosphere reserves? Give reasons.


Answer:

Forest areas and parks are created to conserve different types of flora and fauna.


1)Forests are biosphere reserve as numerous of plants and animals are living there without any threat to their lives.


2) Biosphere reserves are those which humans built for animals to protect them from extinction but forests are natural reserves in which animals are protected.


3) Forests help in maintaining the temperature and oxygen level of the atmosphere.


4) Plants release oxygen during photosynthesis and consume carbon dioxide. Forests being a huge reserve of plants and trees, they play a significant role in balancing oxygen level in the atmosphere.


5)Prevents global warming. Increased amount of carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere results in greenhouse effect and thus causes global warming.



Question 3.

What do you understand about the terms (a) Extinct (b) Endangered (c) Endemic. Give examples.


Answer:

(a) The species which no longer exist anywhere on the earth are called extinct species. The extinct species may be of animals or plants.A type of animal which no longer exist on earth is called an extinct animals.It means that this animal has no living member on the earth.


According to noted ecologist E.O.Wilson every year nearly 10,000 species or 27 species per day become extinct throughout the world.


Few animals extinct are passenger pigeon,dodo,western black rhinosceros,quagga, Tasmanian tiger.


(b) Species which are endangered and have to be protected. Otherwise they are likely to become extinct (disappear from earth for ever) in the near future. Endangered Species. W.W.F.(World Wildlife Federation) or the I.U.W.C (International Union for Wildlife Conservation ) published a book containing the details of endangered and threatened species of Flora and Fauna called as RED DATA BOOK or RED LIST BOOK. Examples Lion, red fox, vulture, wild cat , black spider monkey,loris,white spotted chetal deer , few plant species are rauvolfia serpentine ,Cycas, Nepehthes.


(c) Plants or animal species found restricted to a particular area of a country are called Endemic Species. India shows a good number of endemic species. About 62% of worlds amphibians and 50% of lizards are endemic to Western Ghats of India.


Asiatic lion (gir forest), sangai deer (Loktak lake), lion tailed macaque (western ghats),Kashmir stag (Kashmir Valley).



Question 4.

What is the scientific reason behind bird’s migration?


Answer:

Other birds which don’t have permanent nestlings and join into small flocks and move from one region to the other for food and shelter(nesting habits) called as ‘Migration’ and such birds are called as ‘migratory birds’. During rainy season most of the birds from far away places migrate to Kolleru and Pulikot lakes of our State. They build their nests on the trees in the nearby villages also. In the olden days people believed that these migrated birds are divine ones. But now a days most of the trees are getting cut down. There is hardly any place for birds to build their nests.



Question 5.

Identify the endemic and endangered species and write them against the pictures.



Answer:

A) Tiger , Endemic species


B) The great indian bustard , Endangered species


C) Nepenthes, Endangered species


D) Lion, Endangered species


E) Peacock, Endangered species


F) Single horned rhino , Endangered species



Question 6.

What is the need of conducting biodiversity meet? Collect information about these meetings when and where it was conducted and its agenda also.


Answer:

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), also known as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.


The Convention has three main goals includes:


1) The conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity)


2) The sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.


3) The notion of an international convention on bio-diversity diversity was started at a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).


Need of conducting biodiversity meet includes:


1) Measures the incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.


2) Regulated access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge,


Prior Informed Consent of the party providing resources.


3) Sharing, in a fair and equitable way, the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial.


4) Other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources (governments and/or local communities that provided the traditional knowledge or biodiversity resources utilized).


5) Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology, to the governments and/or local communities that provided traditional knowledge and/or biodiversity resources.




Question 7.

Now-a-days we find animals like leopards and bears intruding into our living places. What may be the reasons for this?


Answer:

Habitat loss and fragmentation are the main reason animals are losing there habitat and shelter we find animals intruding to our houses as man has made settlements by deforestation when they lost their home they come down to our living areas.



Question 8.

Make a list of animals /birds seen now and 30 years ago. Take the help of your elders. Write few reasons for their disappearance.


Answer:

About 30-40 year ago variety of birds like crane, sparrow and parrot were also seen frequently. Now, only crows are found in our surrounding.


But now a days most of the trees are getting cut down. There is hardly any place for birds to build their nests. Extinction of a species may come suddenly when a healthy species is wiped out completely, toxic pollution renders its entire habitat ; or may occur gradually over thousands or millions of years, such as when a species gradually loses out in competition for food to better adapted competitors.


In modern times, commercial and industrial interests often have to contend with the effects of production on plant and animal life. However, some technologies with minimal, or no, proven harmful effects on Homo sapiens can be devastating to wildlife (for example, DDT).



Question 9.

Select an area in your locality. Observe the animals (living and visiting) for a day. Prepare a list and plot a graph.


Answer:

Student do yourself.



Question 10.

When tree is considered as an ecosystem, record the flora and fauna connected with it.


Answer:

A tree considered as an ecosystem there are varieties of fauna and flora connected with it are-


Trees are not a single habitat but dozens of habitats inhabited by thousands of different species. list of some organisms dependent on trees:


1) Birds :


Trees provide birds with a rich harvest of seeds, berries, etc to hide and nest and of course the all important song posts.


2) Spiders and Pseudoscorpions : A huge variety of spiders are found on trees. Branches and hollows are ideal structures to situate webs.


3) Beetles: Many species are directly dependent on trees, feeding on foliage, bark, wood, roots, buds, flowers


or seeds.


4) Squirrels : squirrels rely absolutely on trees for shelter and for food.


5) Flies : Flies can often be seen around all parts of a tree.


6) Slugs & Snails: This may come as a surprise to some but slugs and snails can commonly be found at the tops of


trees.


7) Butterflies and Moths :


Adult butterflies and moths frequently use stubs from snapped branches or bark fissures as egg


laying sites.



Question 11.

Browse through the internet or books on wild life and gather information on bird sanctuaries in India. Prepare a list of birds migrating to India.


Answer: