Europe And India Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Europe And India

Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution
Exercise
  1. In 1453 the city of ______ was conquered by Ottoman Turks. Rewrite the statements by…
  2. The Industrial Revolution began in______. Rewrite the statements by choosing the…
  3. ______ tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of the British. Rewrite the…
  4. Colonialism Explain the following concepts.
  5. Imperialism Explain the following concepts.
  6. Age of Renaissance Explain the following concepts.
  7. Capitalism Explain the following concepts.
  8. Siraj-Ud-Daulah was defeated in the Battle of Plassey. Explain the following statements…
  9. The European countries felt the necessity of finding new trade routes to Asia. Explain the…
  10. European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading…
  11. Complete the following table. Explain the following statements with reasons.…
Project
  1. Collect information and pictures about the work of famous painters, writers, scientists…

Exercise
Question 1.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options

In 1453 the city of ______ was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
A. Venice

B. Constantinople

C. Rome

D. Paris


Answer:

• Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire on 29th May 1453.


• Constantinople was dominated by the Ottoman Army, under the leadership of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II


• This conquest made Ottomans an Empire and one of the most powerful empires.


• After that, the Eastern Roman Empire fell and lasted.


Question 2.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options

The Industrial Revolution began in______.
A. England

B. France

C. Italy

D. Portugal


Answer:

• The dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution was textiles.


• It was huge in terms of employment, the value of output and capital invested.


• Many of the modern production methods were also used in this industry.


• The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain


• Many of the technological advancement also were of British origin.


Question 3.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options

______ tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of the British.
A. Siraj-Ud-Daulah

B. Mir Kasim

C. Mir Jafar

D. Shah Alam



Answer:

• The British imposed heavy duties on Indian goods entering Calcutta which was under their control.


• Siraj-Ud-Daulah seized the English factory at Kasimbazar, marched on to Calcutta, and occupied Fort William on 20 June 1756.


• Later battle on the field of Plassey occurred, about 30 km from Murshidabad, on 23 June 1757.


• The historic battle of Plassey was a battle only in name. In all, 29 Britishers died and Nawab lost nearly 500.


Question 4.

Explain the following concepts.

Colonialism


Answer:

By definition, “Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically”.


The important features of colonialism are:


• The dominant country or a nation takes control of other recessive (weaker) lands, regions, or territories outside of its borders (boundaries of the country) by making those other lands, regions, or territories into a colony.


• The more powerful, a richer country takes dominance of the smaller, less powerful (recessive) region or territory.


• The words "colonialism" and "imperialism" are used with the same meaning.


• In the period between the 1700s and 1800s, the powerful European countries like Britain, France, Spain, and the Netherlands) established colonies in the continents of Africa, South America, Asia, and the Caribbean.


• Dominant countries use colonialism to get more land or wealth for their people to live in.


• The local people living in the less powerful land or territories were usually moved away by using force and fighting from armies.


• To protect these people who belong dominant countries from the local residents (who have lost their land and shelter) colonial nations set up a military fort or colonial police system.


• colonialism is also practiced by dominant countries to get more land so that they can use the land for farming, trees (wood), coal, metals etc.


• Colonial countries (dominant countries) make colonies for getting land to create a local government or military fort.


• Colonialism also helps dominant countries to get workers from the poorer country to work in factories or farms.


• The workers in the recessive countries have forced the people from the poorer countries to work as slaves.


• India was the recessive country and the colony of the Britishers for 190 years.



Question 5.

Explain the following concepts.

Imperialism


Answer:

By definition, “Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means”.


• The Age of New Imperialism began in the 1870s in Europe.


• Imperialism in the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century is now termed Old Imperialism


• European states established vast empires mainly in Africa, but also in Asia and the Middle East.


• European nations followed a violent expansion policy that was stimulated by economic needs that were created by the Industrial Revolution


• The age of imperialism is from 1870 to 1914.


• A foreign country (dominant country) can also exert a great deal of economic influence on the recessive country.


• One of the most widespread forms of imperialism was colonization.


• Most notable example of American imperialism in this age was the annexation of Hawaii Islands in 1898. The United States gained possession and control of all ports, buildings, harbors, military equipment, and public properties that had formerly belonged to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands.



Question 6.

Explain the following concepts.

Age of Renaissance


Answer:

The Renaissance is a period from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history. The main characteristics of the renaissance are:


• It started as a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe


• Renaissance means rebirth. (French: “Rebirth”). It was like a rebirth of art, sculpture, paintings, perspectives etc.


• This period in European civilization can be characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values.


• The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents


• The Renaissance was a cultural movement that initially began in Florence, Italy, but later spread throughout Europe.


• It started around 1350 and ended around 1600.


• During the Renaissance, people experienced changes in art, learning, and many other things


CAUSES OF RENAISSANCE


• Rise of academicians


• Reintroduction of traditional Works


• The discovery of the Printing Press


• support of Rulers, Popes, and Nobles


• The social movement


• Trade and success


• New Wealth and the Black Death


• Peace and War



Question 7.

Explain the following concepts.

Capitalism


Answer:

By definition, “an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state” is called capitalism.


The main characteristics of capitalism are:


1) A Two-Class System


• A capitalist society was characterized by the split between two classes of individuals—the capitalist class, and the working class,


• Capitalists own the means for producing and distributing goods (the owners) and the working class is who sell their labor to the capitalist class in exchange for wages.


• The economy is run by the individuals (or corporations) who own and operate companies and make decisions as to the utilization of resources.


• there exists a “division of labor” which allows for specialization,


• This specialization is occurring through education and training, further breaking down the two-class system into sub-classes (e.g., the middle class).


2) Profit motive


• Companies exist to make a profit and therefore it has a market nature


• The motive for all companies is to make and sell goods and services only for profits.


• Companies do not exist solely to please people's needs.


• Even though some goods or services may perhaps satisfy needs, they will only be available if people have the capital to pay for them.


3) Minimal Government Intervention


• Capitalist societies need the freedom to operate without even any government intervention.


• But, a completely government-free capitalist society exists in theory, only.


• Even in European countries, the government regulates certain industries.


• A purely capitalist society would permit the markets to set prices based on demand and supply for the purpose of making profits.


4) Competition


• True capitalism needs an economical market which is competitive.


• Competition prevent the formation of monopolies


• market sets the prices, not the seller


5) Willingness to Change


• Capitalism has the ability to adapt and change.


• willingness to allow change and adaptability of societies is essential in the period of technology


• It improves inefficiencies within economic structures is a true characteristic of capitalism.



Question 8.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Siraj-Ud-Daulah was defeated in the Battle of Plassey.


Answer:

The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive. The battle enabled the Company's presence in Bengal, which later extended to cover much of India over the next hundred years.


Reasons for Siraj-Ud-Daulah’s defeat are:


• Robert Clive's made conspiracy with the Nawab's Commander-in-Chief Mir Jafar and rich bankers of Bengal


• Siraj-Ud-Daulah’s soldiers fought hard but were leaderless and without direction.


• The cannon and musket fire from Clive’s positions inflicted great loss on Siraj-Ud-Daulah’s troops.


• Clive’s army suffered casualties of 23 dead and 49 wounded. The wounded ones of Siraj-Ud-Daulah’s army were around 500 dead and many wounded. The English captured horses, elephants, and all of the 53 guns brought against them.


• The British guns opened fire and murdered many of the cavalries, killing their commander Mir Madan Khan.


• The Nawab Siraj-Ud-Daulah panicked at the loss of this and ordered his forces to fall back. This was rushed by the British and they captured Calcutta.


• The British bombarded the nawab’s positions without reply and Nawab fled the battlefield on a camel, and Mir Jafar was duly installed in power as a British puppet.


• The victory had cost the lives of only twenty-two soldiers on the British side while achieving a major step toward British control of Bengal.



Question 9.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

The European countries felt the necessity of finding new trade routes to Asia.


Answer:

The European countries started finding new trade routes between 1400 and 1500. It is usually termed as European exploration.


The reasons for this exploration are:


• Many European nations were in constant conflict with each other as they struggled to increase their power and wealth.


• Because of these struggles many of the European nations believed trade with other countries in Asia was the best way to increase wealth.


• Europeans wanted to have a profitable spice trade in the East. That is an overland route through Russia and/or the Middle East.


• After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Turks charged Christian traders high fees to get through and they needed new trade routes.


• The Russian route was not safe because of looting bands of Mongols and Tatars which regularly raided the trade caravans.


• Vasco da Gama found a way to the Indian Ocean around the tip of Africa, that they got the spice trade while cutting out these intruders.


• Many Europeans guessed that one could reach Asia more quickly by sailing west.


• This led to further explorations by Columbus to discover the Americas and the Caribbean.



Question 10.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies.


Answer:

The middle of the 16th century and the middle of the 18th century witnessed the expansion of India’s overseas trade.This was due to the trading activities of the various European companies which came to India during this period. India had commercial dealings with the western countries from time immemorial.


European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies because:


• If conflicts happen with Indian rulers, it will become difficult for European traders to keep their business


• They wanted to separate trade and conflicts from Indian politics.


• The European rulers wanted the sole right to trade with the East, without competition from other British traders.


• The European companies wanted to buy fine qualities of cloth and spices from India which made them flourish in trade and wealth.


• Trade concessions were given as the incentive to the trading companies so that they remain to their rules and regulations in trade.



Question 11.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Complete the following table.



Answer:

• In 1488, Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias (c. 1450-1500) became the first European mariner to round the southern tip of Africa, opening the way for a sea route from Europe to Asia.


• October 12, 1492, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus officially set foot in Americas. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.


• Vasco Da Gama arrived in Kappadu near Kozhikode (Calicut), in Malabar Coast (present-day the Kerala state of India), on 20 May 1498.




Project
Question 1.

Collect information and pictures about the work of famous painters, writers, scientists during the renaissance period with the help of reference books and the internet. Present a project on it in the classroom.


Answer:

Renaissance refers to the astonishing revival of drawing, fine art painting, sculpture and architecture in whole Europe. It was centered in Italy and happened in two hundred years between 1400 and 1600.


The most important painters, sculptors, architects and designers of the Italian Renaissance during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries include:




IMPORTANT PAINTINGS


A) THE FLAGELLATION OF CHRIST BY PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA.
It is considered to be one of the Greatest Paintings Ever.



B) LAMENTATION OVER THE DEAD CHRIST BY ANDREA MANTEGNA.



C) CEILING OCULUS IN THE CAMERA DEGLI SPOSI BY ANDREA MANTEGNA.



RENAISSANCE WRITERS


A) WILLIAM SHAKESPEAR



he is well known for plays like Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night, and Henry V.


B) MIGUEL DE CERVANTES



HE IS FAMOUS FOR THE most influential piece, Don Quixote de la Mancha.


C) NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI



The Prince written in 1513 is the main work


D) Francesco Petrarch



His famous poems are Canzoniere and the Triofi.


RENAISSANCE SCIENTISTS


1) PTOLEMY



Ptolemy was an astronomer and mathematician during ad 100-170 whose idea of the geocentric theory that the earth is the center of the universe overpowered other astronomical thought until the 17th century.


2) Nicolaus Copernicus
Copernicus was a Polish astronomer from 1473-1543 who was best known for his astronomical theory that the sun is at rest near the core of the universe and that the earth, spinning on its axis once daily, revolves annually around the sun. This theory is called the heliocentric or sun-centered system.


3) Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer who made important discoveries that led to three basic laws governing the motion of planets, and these made him one of the chief founders of modern astronomy.


4) Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician. Newton also formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that largely influenced scientists’ thought on the physical world.


These are the information of a few artists who contributed to the renaissance period.


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