Sources Of History Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Sources Of History

Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Exercise
  1. Among the historical sources _______ sources are based on Modern technology. Rewrite the…
  2. The _______ is a museum in Pune which gives information about the history of Mahatma…
  3. A unique discovery of modern technology in the 20th century is ________ Rewrite the…
  4. During the British period, newspapers also acted as a source of social reformation.…
  5. (Audio Visual Recordings are considered the most trustworthy source for the study of…
  6. Photographs Write short notes.
  7. Museums and History Write short notes.
  8. Audio sources Write short notes.
  9. Complete the following diagram.
Project
  1. Collect the photographs related to Indian Freedom movement with the help of internet.…
  2. Gather information about the important leaders of Indian freedom movement and their…

Exercise

Question 1.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

Among the historical sources _______ sources are based on Modern technology.
A. Written

B. Oral

C. Material

D. Audio-visual


Answer:

(a) is the answer because Audio visual service provides web streaming, video conferencing and live broadcast services with the help of technology.


(a) is not the answer because hand-written records don’t have any of technology


(b) is not the answer because oral sources are only partially attributed to modern technology


(c) is not the answer because Material objects are the items with physical stuff. They are mainly shaped or produced by human action. For example, a coin is the product of human action.


Question 2.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

The _______ is a museum in Pune which gives information about the history of Mahatma Gandhi.
A. Aga Khan Palace

B. Sabarmati Ashram

C. Cellular Jail

D. Lakshmi Vilas Palace


Answer:

(a) is the answer because Aga Khan Palace is built in respect of Gandhi and his philosophy by Agha Khan III. He donated this Aga Khan Palace for India. It was made for paying respect to all the freedom fighters in 1969.


(b) is not the answer because Sabarmati ashram is one of the many residences of Mahatma Gandhi


(c) is not the answer because cellular jail is the colonial prison in Andaman and Nicobar islands.


(d) is not the answer because Lakshmi Vilas Palace is in Vadodara, Gujarat, India, constructed by the Gaekwad, a prominent Maratha family, who ruled the Baroda State.


Question 3.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

A unique discovery of modern technology in the 20th century is ________
A. Powada

B. Photograph

C. Interviews

D. Films


Answer:

Photography was invented in 1839 and the concept and application of interviews came in 1921. Films began to be a part of human life by the end of 19th century (1890) and at the beginning of the 20th century.


Question 4.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

During the British period, newspapers also acted as a source of social reformation.


Answer:

Newspaper can be defined as “a printed means of conveying current information”. It is the proud institution of the society and its basic function is to provide info-edu-tainment (information, education, and entertainment).


The British period was marked by severe government control and censorship. If some newspapers print any news against the government then the strict penalty was given.
- Therefore, in the late 18th and early 19th century, no reputed journalist or newspaper emerged. The newspapers acted as the source of social reformation:


• Newspapers initiated clear journalistic practices and covered the problems of local people and their lives.


• social reformers and political leaders had started contributing to the field of journalism


• Journalism was all about to make common man understand the social, religious, administrative situation of India under the British rule.


• Awareness and against Customs and practices like Sati, untouchability, infanticide etc were given through newspapers.


Notable newspapers and social reformers


• Raja Ram Mohan Roy recognized the power of newspapers and started a Bengali newspaper ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ in 1822


• Fardaonji Murzban in 1822 started ‘Bombay Samachar’, he was a pioneer of the Vernacular Press in Bombay


• C.Y. Chintamani, N. C. Kelkar, Ferozeshah Mehta also started newspapers.



Question 5.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

(Audio Visual Recordings are considered the most trustworthy source for the study of Modern Indian History.


Answer:

Audio literally means “hearing” and “visual” means that which is found by seeing and hearing. Audio Visual Aids are also called instructional material which makes the knowledge clear to us. They are considered as the most trustworthy for the following reasons:


• Make learning situations as real as possible


For example, in the case of studying the history of Indian freedom struggle, it becomes more real when the (available) video clips of freedom fighters are shown.


• Give us firsthand knowledge through the organs of hearing and seeing.


It is proven that we remember that we see or hear than what we read. Seeing and hearing are the basic steps of experiencing. Therefore history, which is the study of events and incidents, can be studied easily.


• To make the learning experience more concrete and effective


Seeing videos or listening to talks helps in more effective learning. The visual experience of Gandhiji ’s Dandi march or the documentary about the 1857 revolt is more concrete than mere classroom lectures.


• More realistic and dynamic


The way the learner experience the history of India becomes dynamic because of the enriched information and data which can be included in a single audio or video file.



Question 6.

Write short notes.

Photographs


Answer:

Photography is the communication without letters. The intentions of photographs vary according to situations. It has different roles in different period of time. It takes up great responsibility in society during the time of social emergencies.


Aims of photography


• Visual interpretations.


• Creation of visual art


• Meditation to oneself


• Record an event


• Make viewers aware about a social situation ( eg: photojournalism)
copy some beauty (nature, skill etc)
chase perfection



Question 7.

Write short notes.

Museums and History


Answer:

By definition, “The museum as an institution that tells the story of the man to the world over and how humanity has survived in its environment over the years”.


• They are agents of change and development and future research


• They mirror events in society within a period of time in history


• They are instruments of progress as they preserve actions and events in history


• The museums target teachers, adults, the youth, and women's organizations through popular forum discussions


• They help in promotion and a better understanding of its heritage


• its agenda is targeting national growth, development and general liberation


• They work as material sources of study which helps in detailed learning.



Question 8.

Write short notes.

Audio sources


Answer:

Audio sources are captured sound on a recording medium for preservation and reproduction. Audio sources have reached to its digital era in the current period. Audio sources are components that playback audio. It has a very important role in the field of education, information, entertainment, and research. Audio sources can be made intentionally and unintentionally. Sound recording and its reproduction are very important and useful in studying history.


Sound recording and reproduction are defined as “an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects”. Audio sources help in:


• A better understanding of the subjects


• A detailed revision of the topic


• Intentional and unintentional audio sources serve their purpose according to the need of the study.


• In case of repeated study, audio sources allow us to be hands-free in most part of the time.



Question 9.

Complete the following diagram.



Answer:

Material sources


1) BOOKS


2) MONUMENTS


3) MUSEUMS


4) BUILDINGS


5) CLOTHES


6) TRANSPORT


7) GOODS AND PRODUCTS


8) CITIES AND NEIGHBOURHOOD


9) CURRENCY




Project

Question 1.

Collect the photographs related to Indian Freedom movement with the help of internet.


Answer:

A) QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT 1942



B) THE SCENE AFTER THE REVOLT OF 1857



C) GANDHIJI



D) GANDHIJI IN ONE OF THE FREEDOM MARCHES



E) NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE



F) GANDHIJI AND NETAJI



G) THE CHORI-CHAURA INCIDENT-1922



H) SWADESHI MOVEMENT 1905



I) DANDI MARCH 1930



J) “SIMON GO BACK” AGITATION OF 1928



K) INDIANS BEING BEATEN UP BY THE BRITISH DURING A PROTEST




Question 2.

Gather information about the important leaders of Indian freedom movement and their biographies and read aloud.


Answer:

Independent India is the contribution of thousands and thousands of nameless freedom fighters and famous Indians like Gandhiji, Nehru, Patel etc.


1) MAHATMA GANDHI



• Mahatma Gandhi’s father, Karamchand Gandhi, was as a chief minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putlibai, was a totally religious woman who fasted regularly.


• At the age of 13, Mahatma Gandhi wed Kasturba Makanji, a merchant’s daughter, in an arranged marriage.


• Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement.


• He was the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule.


• Gandhi studied law and organized boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience.


• Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god Vishnu. He also followed Jainism. He believed in non-violence, fasting, meditation, and vegetarianism.


• “The religious spirit within me became a living force,” he wrote about religion.


• In 1915 Gandhi founded an ashram in Ahmedabad, India, that was open to all castes.


• He was called ‘Mahatma’ or the ‘great saint’.


• In 1888, 18-year-old Gandhi went to London, England, to study law.


• in 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he called “Satyagraha” (“truth and firmness”).


• After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in 1913, including Gandhi.


• In 1930, Gandhi returned to active politics to protest Britain’s Salt Acts. It is called as salt satyagraha


• Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared after independence and made bad effect on August 15, 1947. The religious hatred increased.


• Gandhiji was assassinated by Hindutva Terrorist Nathuram Godse.


2) JAWAHARLAL NEHRU



• Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community was Nehru’s father. He served twice as President of the Indian National Congress. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu (1868–1938), belonged to a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family, settled in Lahore.


• He did education in England and later studied law at Trinity College, Cambridge.


• On returning to India in 1912, he practiced law and got married to Kamala Kaul. They had one daughter – Indira Gandhi.


• Nehru joined the Indian National Congress in 1919


• By 1927, Nehru became an influential voice in advocating the call for complete independence from the British Empire.


• During the 1920s and 1930s, he actively participated in the civil disobedience campaigns and was jailed on several occasions.


• In 1942, Nehru followed Gandhi’s ‘Quit India Movement’.


• On the independence day, that is on August 15th, 1947, Nehru became India’s first Prime Minister.


• On the eve of India’s independence, Nehru gave a speech to Congress and the nation – known as “Tryst with Destiny”


• Nehru died in 1964.


3) B. R. AMBEDKAR



• Ambedkar was born in a poverty-stricken family in Madhya Pradesh. He was the 14th child of Ramji Sakpal who was a Subedar (officer) in the British Indian Army.


• His family was ranked as a Mahar (Dalit) ‘untouchable’ caste.


• In 1897, he became the only ‘untouchable’ to be enrolled in Bombay high school.


• In 1907, he became the first ‘untouchable’ to enter an affiliated college of the University of Bombay.


• In 1906, he was arranged to be married to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai.


• He is called as “Babasaheb”


• He specialized in law, economics and political science, and made contributions to Indian economic thought.


• In 1918, he became Professor of Political Economy at the Sydenham College in Bombay. He also went on to serve as a lawyer


• He was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. He was also appointed first Law Minister.


• Ambedkar prepared a constitution which sheltered a wide range of civil liberties for both the poor and women.


• His making of the Indian constitution placed a large emphasis on equal rights and the overcoming of discrimination.


• he was critical of the caste aspect of Hinduism and frequently talked about his desire to leave his religion


3) BHAGAT SINGH






• His family was politically active


• He was an atheist and socialist in life.


 He said, “My life has been dedicated to the noblest cause, that of the freedom of the country. Therefore, there is no rest or worldly desire that can lure me now.


• Born a Sikh he became influenced by Marxist and Anarchist philosophies and was dedicated to the attainment of independence for India, through violence if necessary.


• From a very young age, nationalism had taken its seed in Bhagat Singh’s ethics.


• He grew up to value nationalism and desire a British-free independent India.


• Singh was a leader of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).


• He was executed in 1931 for his part in killing a British officer.


4) BAL GANGADHAR TILAK



• He was one of the prime architects of modern India and the strongest advocates of Swaraj or Self Rule for India.


• His famous declaration is “Swaraj is my birth right, and I shall have it”


• He belonged to a middle-class Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri, a small coastal town in south-western Maharashtra.


• He received his law degree in 1879.


• As one among India's first generation of youths who received a modern, college education, Tilak strongly criticized the educational system followed by the British in India.


• Tilak founded two newspapers ‘Kesari’ in Marathi and ‘Mahratta’ in English.


• Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890.


• Because of the fundamental difference in outlook, Tilak and his supporters came to be known as the extremist wing of Indian National Congress Party.


• During 1908-1914, Bal Gangadhar Tilak spent had to undergo six years of painstaking imprisonment in Mandalay Jail, Burma.


• Tilak founded the All India Home Rule League in 1916


• Tilak was so disappointed by the brutal incident of Jalianwala Bagh massacre that his health started diminishing.


• In mid-July 1920, his condition worsened and on August 1, he passed away.




These are the biographic information about a few prominent leaders who fought for our independence.

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