Effects Of British Rule Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Effects Of British Rule

Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Exercise
  1. Portuguese, _______, French, British participated in the competition of capturing the…
  2. In 1802 Peshwa ______ signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British. Rewrite the…
  3. Jamshedjee Tata started the manufacturing of steel at Tata Iron and Steel industry…
  4. Civil Services Explain the following concepts.
  5. Commercialisation of Agriculture Explain the following concepts.
  6. The economic policy of British Explain the following concepts.
  7. Farmers in India became bankrupt. Explain the following statements with reasons.…
  8. There was a decline in traditional industries in India. Explain the following statements…
  9. Complete the following table.
Project
  1. Prepare detailed information with pictures about the development by British in…

Exercise

Question 1.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

Portuguese, _______, French, British participated in the competition of capturing the Indian market.
A. Austrian

B. Dutch

C. German

D. Swedish


Answer:

(a) Austrian


The Austrians never came to India, neither there is any sign of their presence in our history.


(b) Dutch


This is the right answer the Dutch, and the Portuguese came to Goa in the 14th century and tried to establish their rule. The Dutch tried to get hold of the spices that were available in the Indian Subcontinent. They established their settlements and trading posts in The Indian coast of Kerela and Goa. They had their rule from 1605 – 1825.


(c) German


The German also never came to India for conquering or getting hold of the market. It was only the British who came to capture the whole of India and the Dutch, French and Portuguese who came to southern India.


(d) Swedish


The Swedish also never came to India for conquering or for capturing the market. It was only the French, Dutch, Portuguese and the British who came to India for enhancing trade and market of their home country.


Question 2.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

In 1802 Peshwa ______ signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British.
A. Bajirao I

B. Sawai Madhavrao

C. Peshwa Nanasaheb

D. Bajirao II


Answer:

(a) Bajirao I


Bajirao I is not the correct answer as The Subsidiary Alliance was Proposed and signed in the year 1802, and Bajirao I died in 1740.


(b) Sawai Madhavrao


Savai Madhav Rao cannot be the correct answer this is because He belonged to the Maratha Empire, and murdered in 1795. The Subsidiary Alliance was signed in 1802 which was after his death.


(c) Peshwa Nanasaheb


Nanasaheb cannot be the right answer; this is because he died in 1761, and the Subsidiary Alliance was signed in 1802, which was after his death.


(d) Bajirao II


Yes, this is the right answer because Bajirao II was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. He was known as the puppet ruler of the Maratha Rulers. He died in 1851, and the Subsidiary Alliance was signed in 1802, Which explains that this is the right answer. He flew to Pune because his powers were growing on a large scale, after which he signed the treaty if the barbaric and cruel Britishers.


Question 3.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

Jamshedjee Tata started the manufacturing of steel at Tata Iron and Steel industry established in………..
A. Mumbai

B. Kolkata

C. Jamshedpur

D. Delhi


Answer:

(a) Mumbai


The answer cannot be Mumbai; this is because Mumbai doesn’t have iron ore and basalt and even coal mines. Thus the manufacturing of iron and steel goods was not possible.


(b) Kolkata


Kolkata is a city which is located in the Tropical region; it has a marine climate and has seashores. There are no mines of iron, coal, coke, basalt and magnesium. There is the scope of cropping and agriculture in this city but not manufacturing of steel equipment.


(c) Jamshedpur


Jamshedpur is the correct answer as it is located in Bihar, which is located at a place where the soil and mines are rich in iron ore, basalt, coke, coal and magnesium. The geographical factors of this place are favourable for the manufacturing of Steel and iron equipment.


(d) Delhi


It is a metropolitan city and was always home to service and administration professions. It does not have mines and big rocks with hard and melted lava which are sources of minerals. There is no place for manufacturing, and thus the plant could never be settled up here. It was a princely state with only buildings and some forests, but the soil here is not rich enough to bear industries here.


Question 4.

Explain the following concepts.

Civil Services


Answer:

It is the permanent and rigid parts of a country or state’s regime. Civil services include the governing and administration of the state’s crucial functions which are mostly decision making. It is responsible for solving the day to day issues of public and the Common Man. It includes the normal and civilian population and excludes the elected politicians, the military and the judicial services.



Question 5.

Explain the following concepts.

Commercialisation of Agriculture


Answer:

Earlier what farmers produced was only for their sustainability. But after the British came, they turned towards India for the crops like indigo, cotton, jute, bamboo tea, and coffee. The farmers were pressurised to produce large quantities of produce for the Britishers as the demand of indigo had increased on a large scale. Hence, now the crops and the produce was cultivated by the peasants and the farmers and was now used for sale in the national and International Market and not for their own livelihood. The commercialization of agrarian society started after the 1800s.



Question 6.

Explain the following concepts.

The economic policy of British


Answer:

1. The main economic policy of the British government was Land settlement and the zamindari system


Because of both these policies, the Indian agriculture became very obsolete and backward. All the produce was taken by the rulers of British India, this made the farmers angry, but they could not do anything. The farmers had to pay exceptionally high taxes because of which they also had a huge amount of debt. The zamindari system had looted a lot of farmers of their produce and growth. Thus this was a major drawback of this policy.


2. Deindustrialisation


The Britishers made India an exporter of raw materials and importer of finished goods which led to the only loss of the Indian Economy.


3. The economic growth was poor


This meant that the primary products such as jute, cotton, silk and coffee and also tea was exported to India, 50% of the trading activities of India were controlled by the British hands, rest was with China, Bhutan and Iran. Thus the foreign market of India was controlled by the British interest for their economic needs.



Question 7.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Farmers in India became bankrupt.


Answer:

Farmers took a loan from the moneylender, and the broker acted as the middleman who exploited the farmers. The farmers had to sell their products at a low price to the merchants and the middleman; they had to sell in whatever price it was demanded. The farmers had to mortgage their land when they could not pay their loan back to the moneylender. This led to a vicious cycle of taking more loans which eventually led to bankruptcy.



Question 8.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

There was a decline in traditional industries in India.


Answer:

The Indian traditional textiles industries had a decline because of the foll reasons:


1. The products of India had a high demand in Europe, so the British imposed a ban on their imports in Europe.


2. The textile industries were not allowed to flourish in India.


3. Due to the Industrial Revolution, the Britishers started making machine-made goods which were cheaper, and the Indian goods could not bear and stand in comparison to them.


4. Complete the following table.



Question 9.

Complete the following table.



Answer:

Complete the following table.





Project

Question 1.

Prepare detailed information with pictures about the development by British in administration, education, transport and communication in India.


Answer:

Administration


• Regulating act of 1773


The Court of the Director was now changed every four years rather than 1 year because of which corruption was controlled and the activities of the British administration were always on toes.



• Charter act of 1813


This deprived the East India company of gaining their profit in Indian trade


but led to more control on trade with China in Tea.



• Lord Cornwallis - He passed many reforms which helped the Indian workers, he raised the salaries of the employees, reduced the number of revenue villages and districts. He reorganised the judiciary and revised the administration system of India.



Lord Cornwallis in India


• The police administration was done by putting a governor at the province headquarters and a faujdar at the subsiding levels.



The faujdars and horsemen did the policing.


• Warren Hastings helped in the judicial administration by allowing trials of Hindus according to Hindu law and Muslims according to Muslim law and Sharia. He introduced the DISTRICT FAUJDARI AND DIWANI ADALAT.



Lord Warren Hastings


• Lord commission was set by Macaulay. The British allowed the local self-government in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. This was done in the act of 1918.



Lord Macaulay



Education


• Lord Wellesley established the college of Fort WILLIAM in the 1800s as according to him it represented the Oxford of the East. He tried to help the education System Of India.



College of Fort William


• In 1893, The House Of Commons passed a resolution regarding the examination for the civil services in both England And India.


• The 1813 Act of Charles Grant and William Wilberforce, this act was passed to spread education leaving the invention part of the British and spread Christianity.


• 1823 General Committee of Public Instruction: This committee promoted western Education on a large scale.


• The 1835 Policy of Education by Lord Macaulay, English was made the court language, it was used for teaching only the upper strata of the society in India, Books of English language were very cheap, English education was sponsored by the state. Bethune school was established, Agriculture Institute in Pusa (Bihar) And Engineering Institute at Roorkee.


• Wood’s Dispatch Act of 1854, it was used to spread education among the Masses.


• Sadler Commission, it was formed due to the problems of Calcutta University. It had 12-year school course mandatory and 3-year undergraduate program. Its recommendation was also acceptable in Other colleges.


Transport and Communication


• The most historic and recommendable transport developed by the British was the railways, introduced by the Britishers in 1853, The first railway was from Bombay to Thane. It eased the navigation for the British officers and employees. Railways made transport cheap and affordable.



Bombay To Thane


• According to the motor vehicles act 1939, transport was not feasible in bumpy and potholes filled road. Hence as roads served as the backbone of industrialisation and even communication for the postman, they had to be built at any cost. Good metalled roads were constructed in cities and some villages to ease transportation. Thus, four types of roads were built:


1. National Highway


2. State or Provincial Highway


3. Major districts road


4. And Village Roads


• Water Transport, introduced by the British in the 1800s, it helped in trade and other errands


• Many railways were built across North India.


COMMUNICATION


• Air Transport, introduced in the 19th Century, First Air Mail Service was introduced in 1911 from Allahabad to Naini, known as the airmail Telegraph. The Indian Continental Airways Ltd. Began to operate in 1932. Then other companies came.


• The British also introduced a modern postal system and introduced The Telegraph in India.


• The first Telegraph line In India Was from Calcutta to Agra, which was opened in 1853.


• Postal stamps were introduced by Lord Dalhousie, earlier payment had to be done, but now it was cheap and affordable. He had also cut postal rates.

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