Changing Life : 1 Class 9th History & Political Science MHB Solution

Changing Life : 1

Class 9th History & Political Science MHB Solution
Exercises
  1. The first open heart surgery under the leadership of Dr N Gopinath was successfully…
  2. ………………. is known as the father of the ‘Jaipur foot’. Choose the proper option and rewrite…
  3. Identify the wrong pair and rewrite the corrected one. 1. Dr N. Gopinath - open heart…
  4. Explain the concepts: 1. The Institution of family 2. Jaipur foot technology 3.…
  5. The campaign for pulse polio immunization was taken up. Give reasons.…
  6. The Rural Water Supply scheme was started. Give reasons.
  7. Which kinds of discrimination does the Constitution prohibit? Answer the following…
  8. What is the aim of the social welfare programme? Answer the following questions in 25-30…
  9. What are the challenges facing rural development? Answer the following questions in 25-30…
  10. Write a brief review of the significant events in the field of public health in India.…
Projects
  1. Interview a senior person in your neighbourhood to find out about the following points.-…

Exercises
Question 1.

Choose the proper option and rewrite the completed statements.

The first open heart surgery under the leadership of Dr N Gopinath was successfully performed in the city of ____
A. Chennai

B. Vellore

C. Hyderabad

D. Mumbai


Answer:

In 1962, the first successful open surgery was performed under the leadership of Dr. N. Gopinath at the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu.


Question 2.

Choose the proper option and rewrite the completed statements.

………………. is known as the father of the ‘Jaipur foot’.
A. Dr N. Gopinathan

B. Dr Pramod Sethi

C. Dr Mohan Rao

D. None of the above


Answer:

In India, before 1968, if a person lost a leg in an accident, he had to suffer for the rest of life. However, Dr. Pramod Sethi was successful in designing and manufacturing artificial limbs, noses and ears with the help of another skilled craftsman, Ramchandra Sharma.

These artificially manufactured body parts through the Jaipur Foot Technology was a massive contribution towards the lives of the differently-abled.


Question 3.

Identify the wrong pair and rewrite the corrected one.

1. Dr N. Gopinath – open heart surgery

2. Ramchandra Sharma – a skilled craftsman

3. Dr Subhash Mukhopadhyaya – test tube baby

4. Dr Mohan Rao – polio


Answer:


Explanation – 4. Dr. Mohan Rao polio is the incorrect pair among the four mentioned pairs. The correct answer is – Dr. Mohan Rao –


kidney transplant.


Dr. Mohan Rao and Dr. Johny successfully transplanted the kidney donated by a living person into the patient’s body at the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore in Tamil Nadu in 1971.



Question 4.

Explain the concepts:

1. The Institution of family

2. Jaipur foot technology

3. Urbanization

4. Changing economic life


Answer:

1. The Institution of family : The Institution of family from the pre-independence period has been a very important feature of the Indian society and culture.

Although, India has been known as the country of joint families all over the world, it has witnessed several changes with the new wave of globalization. For example – an emerging system of nuclear families is a significant change as compared to the previous organization and setting of family as an institution in India.


2. Jaipur foot technology : The invention of the Jaipur foot technology has been successful in transforming the lives of the disabled people in India because it has enabled the manufacturing of artificial body parts such as artificial limbs, noses and ears, etc. Due to this invention, the different-abled can walk bare-foot on rough surfaces, run, go cycling, work in fields, and climb trees and mountains and so on.


Additionally, not only can they save expenses on shoes, they can easily bend their knees, sit cross-legged and conveniently work on


wet conditions.


3. Urbanization : Urbanization refers to the process of concentration of population in a city or an urban area.


Rise in population is one of the major reasons leading to urbanization along with the changes in air, water and economic as well as social organizations necessary to sustain community life.


Focusing on the post-independence period, increasing urban population can be attributed to factors such as reduction in mortality rate, industrialization, lack of means of livelihood in rural areas and the ample of job opportunities in cities.


Note–


Mortality Rate – It is a measure of the no. of deaths in a particular region, scaled to the size of the population per unit time.


Industrialization - establishment of new industries


4. Changing economic life : The changes in economic life have been rapid in transforming the nature of work and working process.


Previously, every village was economically self-sufficient and a majority of the villagers were dependent on farming. Farm produce was distributed among artisans as payment for their work. But with the changing situation, rural areas are now engaged in agriculture and occupations ancillary to farming whereas the urban society, on the other hand, is occupied in non-agricultural production and tasks related to the service sector.



Question 5.

Give reasons.

The campaign for pulse polio immunization was taken up.


Answer:

Every year, out of every ten children, six of them suffered fatal health problems in the very first year of their birth before 1978. In order to overcome the threat of certain serious diseases such as polio, measles, tetanus, TB, diphtheria, and whooping cough etc, the immunization programme was initiated. In addition, the ‘pulse polio’ immunization was started in 1995, which effectively resulted in controlling the polio disease.



Question 6.

Give reasons.

The Rural Water Supply scheme was started.


Answer:

The necessity to give attention to public hygiene and health care facilities is the underlying factor behind various schemes that were a part of the first five year plans. The problems related to year round provision of drinking water, toilets, open drainage, narrow roads, inadequate electrification and medical facilities were responsible for the collective development scheme.

The state of Maharashtra registered remarkable achievements after the launch of various programmes under this scheme including the Rural Water Supply Scheme. It was started during the 1970s for sinking wells and provision of piped water. Additionally, by 1971, 1677 small dams had also been built.



Question 7.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words.

Which kinds of discrimination does the Constitution prohibit?


Answer:

According to the Indian Constitution, all Indians are equal before the law i.e. they cannot be discriminated on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth.

Shaking the foundations of the caste system in India, these changes brought in a series of minor and major changes in the society. For example – now anyone can go into a restaurant irrespective of his religion, race caste or gender.



Question 8.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words.

What is the aim of the social welfare programme?


Answer:

Indian society, since the post-independence period, is riddled with large scale economic, social, educational and cultural inequalities. However, it is necessary to provide opportunities for development for all sections of the society including women, children, the differently abled as well as the minorities (Scheduled castes, Scheduled tribes etc.).

The incorporation of the ‘welfare state’ idea in the constitution highlights this idea wherein the social welfare programme aims to make opportunities for full-time employment, health care, education and development available to all Indian citizens.



Question 9.

Answer the following questions in 25-30 words.

What are the challenges facing rural development?


Answer:

There are three major challenges with reference to rural development – firstly, bringing about economic development, secondly, developing facilities to meet social needs and thirdly, bringing about a change of attitude in matters concerning society, culture and ways of thinking.

Additionally, the need to boost irrigation projects and carry out land reforms is equally important.



Question 10.

Write a brief review of the significant events in the field of public health in India.


Answer:

The Constitution of India puts forward the primary duty of the state i.e. to raise the people’s standard of living, ensure proper nutrition and improve public health.

1. Efforts, with the help of the sixth five-year plan, were made towards helping people maintain good health by giving recognition to Unani, Homoeopathy, Ayurveda and Naturopathy in addition to Allopathy.


2. Progress in the medical field and technology also helped in the successful completion of the open heart surgery at the Christian Medical College hospital in Vellore.


3. The invention of the Jaipur Foot technology also helped in transforming the lives of the differently-abled with manufacturing of artificial body parts.


4. The successful completion of a kidney transplant in 1971 at Christian Medical College hospital in Vellore was also a major


landmark.


5. The support of the ‘test-tube baby technology’ since 1978 has immensely helped childless couples across the country. Being the first attempt at artificial conception, it was successfully carried out in Kolkata under intense supervision.


6. The immunization programme to overcome the threat of diseases such as polio, measles, tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough etc. was started in 1995 to protect infants from fatal health problems.




Projects
Question 1.

Interview a senior person in your neighbourhood to find out about the following points.

- Changes in the structure of houses

- Change in farming and agriculture

- Availability of vehicles


Answer:

1. Structure of houses – Tthe institution of family has undergone transformational changes in the post independence period. As a matter of fact, from joint families, the norm seems to have begun to change and shift towards the nuclear set up.


2. Change in farming and agriculture – Due to inputs from technological advancements in the field of agriculture and new


farming techniques and methods, this sector has also shifted from the traditional methods.


3. Availability of vehicles – Transport and communication is the major area of change with regard to availability of vehicles. The readily available services, even in remote areas, has facilitated smooth functioning and transport of goods and services across distant regions.


NOTE – Keeping in mind the above given points, along with many other aspects, students can interview a senior person and collect useful latest data related to different aspects.

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