Punctuation

The word 'Punctuation' is taken from the Latin word 'Punctum' meaning 'point'. Punctuation refers to the right point being put at the right place, in order to make reading and understanding clear, precise and understandable. Some of these marks of punctuation are as follows.

Full Stop
.
Comma
,
Semicolon
;
Colon
:
Mark of interrogation or Question mark
?
Mark of interjection or Exclamation mark
!
Quotation marks or Inverted Commas
" "
Apostrophe
'
Hyphen
-
Dash
__

1. Full Stop: The full stop marks the end of a sentence. It is also used to denote abbreviations and initials.

2. Comma: Basically, the comma is used to indicate a slight pause between words, phrases or clauses.

3. Semicolon: The semicolon represents a pause of greater intensity that they indicated by a comma.

4. Colon: The colon marks a still more complete pause than that expressed by  the semicolon.

5. Mark of Interrogation or Question Mark: The question mark is used instead of a full stop, at the end of a question asked.

6. Mark of Interjection or Exclamation Mark: The Exclamation Mark is used after interjections and after phrases and sentences expressing sudden emotion or wish.

7. Quotation Marks or Inverted Commas: Quotation marks are used to enclose the exact words of a speaker, or a quotation.

8. Apostrophe: The Apostrophe is used to show possession.
e.g. Father's pen. Mother's dress.

It is also used to show the omission of a letter or letters.
e.g. Don't, Can't, Shouldn't, etc.

Apostrophe also used for plural nouns ending in 's'
e.g. Here are the pupils' books.
Whose fathers' pen it is?

9. Hyphen: A shorter line than the dash, it is used to connect parts of a compound word.
e.g. home-made, man-of-war, air-conditioner, etc.

10. Dash: A dash is used to indicate a sudden stop in the thoughts of the speaker, and the introduction of another thought.

11. Capitalization - Capitals are used to begin a sentence. For proper noun, for personal pronoun 'I' .


Exercise to practice.

Punctuate the following sentences.

1.sonia and her cousin sheila have just arrived from london
   Sonia and her cousin, Sheila have just arrived from London.

2.uncle sam took us to spencers  mall from where we bought many  things cake biscuits soft drinks stationery  items and toiletries
   Uncle Sam took us to spencer ‘s mall from where we bought many things  -cakes,biscuits,softdrinks,    Stationery  items and toiletries.

3.dr rajesh is a well qualified surgeon with a md degree from california university
   Dr Rajesh is a well qualified surgeon with an M.D degree from california university.

4.who do you wish to speak to anne asked the man on the phone
    “Who do u wish to speak to?” Anne asked the man on the phone.

5.emperor akbar was a wise moghul king who rule india for many years
   Emperor Akbar was a wise Moghul king who rued India for many years.

6.this year on teachers day the students of class 10 gave their class teacher mrs aarti patel a gift a bouquet of flowers and a card
   This year, on Teachers ‘ Day, the students of class 10 gave their class teacher, Mrs Aarti Patel a gift, a bouquet of flowers and a card.

7.all students both boys and girls from class 9 must proceed to the science laboratory for a demonstration by mr santosh
   All students - both boys and girls from class 9 must proceed to the Science Laboratory for a demontration by Mr Santosh.

8.the man asked his wife what do you wish for your birthday this year
   The man asked his wife, “What do you wish for your birthday, this year?”

9.the wife replied i wish that you grant three wishes every birthday till the end of time
   The wife replied,”I wish that you grant three wishes everybirthday till the end of time.”

10.punit and sanjana lived at salisbury park in pune city for ten years before they migrated to paris
     Punit and Sanjana lived at Salisbury Park in Pune city for ten years before they migrated to Paris.

11. ravi said his mother do you want a glass of orange juice
     “Ravi,” said his mother, “Do you want a glass of orange juice?”

12.shakespeare yeats shelly wordsworth all are great english poets.
     Shakespeare, Yeats, Shelly and Wordsworth – all are great English poets.

13. what is your priority health or wealth asked mr john our colleague from amsterdam
    “What is your priority – health or wealth?” asked Mr John, our new colleague from amsterdam.

14. in india the people from the states of kerala and tamil nadu generally prefer coffee to tea
    In India, the people from the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu generally prefer coffee to tea.


15.rohans mother and divyas sister went to america last year in september by virgin atlantic airlines

    Rohan’s mother and Divya’s sister went to America last year in September by Virgin atlantic airlines.