Recent Developments In Indian Politics Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Class 12th Politics In India Since Independence CBSE Solution

Exercises
Question 1.

Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni…

and arrange the file chronologically.

(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir

(b) Formation of the Janata Dal

(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid

(d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi

(e) The formation of NDA government

(f) Godhra incident and its fallout

(g) Formation of the UPA government


Answer:

Chronological arrangement of the press clipping:-


(a) Assassination of Indira Gandhi (1984)


(b) Formation of Janata Dal (1988)


(c) Mandal Recommendation and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)


(d) The demolition of Babri Masjid


(e) The formation of NDA government (1997)


(f) Godhra Incident and its fallout (2002)


(g) Formation of UPA government (2004)



Question 2.

Match the following.


Answer:

(a) Politics of Consensus – iv. Agreement on Economic policies


• This lack of consensus within the government is a serious hindrance to the effective implementation of economic policies. Agreement within the government is vitally important to implement economic policies effectively.


(b) Caste based parties – ii. Rise of OBCs


• Caste based parties gave a rise to OBC group. Vote-bank politics has a lot to do with the prioritising of caste-based categorisation (BJP) which wants to consolidate its support among OBCs as it seeks to cement its position as the dominant political force in the country.


(c) Personal law and gender justice – i. Shah Bano case


• Shah Bano case is seen as one of the milestones in Muslim women’s fight for rights in India and the battle against the set Muslim personal law. It laid the ground for thousands of women to make legitimate claims which they were not allowed before.


(d) Growing strength of Regional parties – iii. Coalition government


• In regional parties like (DMK, ADMK), Ethnic (Gorkha League, Bahujan Samaj Party), political ideology (CPIM), religious (Akali Dal), etc. Regional parties are now more powerful and play the role of king maker at both the central and state levels with coalition government.



Question 3.

State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?


Answer:

From 1952 to 1967 congress party dominated Indian politics. In 1977, for the first time, non-congress government or Janata Party government was established. After 1989 main issues in Indian Politics are as follows:


1. Multiple Party System – In 2014, the Election Commission recognised six national Parties and 54 state level parties. Six National Parties are: Indian National Congress, B.J.P, C.P.I, C.P.I. (M), National Congress Party and Bahujan Samaj Party.


2. End of Single Party Dominance – Congress Party Dominated the political scene at the centre as well as the state before 1967. In 1977, with the formation of Janata Party, the monopoly of the congress party ended for a short period but in the elections of 1980 and 1984 congress secured absolute majority. However, the dominance of congress came to an end in November, 1989 when congress was badly defeated in the 9th general elections and the other parties entered the Lok Sabha with sufficient strength.


3. Rise of Effective Opposition – After 1989, another main issue was the rise of organized opposition. In 1989, with the defeat of Congress (I), a strong organised opposition came into existence. In the 14th and 15th Lok Sabha elections, B.J.P emerged as a strong and effective opposition.


4. Importance of Regional Parties – Growing influence of regional parties is another major issue of Indian Politics. There are 56 regional parties. After the 11th till the 15th Lok Sabha elections no National Party was in a position to form the government without the support of the regional political parties.


5. Growing Politics of Casteism – Growing politics of Casteism is another major issue of Indian Politics. In politics, Casteism is growing day by day. Almost all the states in India are deeply affected by this politically.


6. Coalition Politics – After 1989, coalition government has become a regular feature of Indian Political System. In 1989, National Front Government was formed at the centre with outside support of B.J.P and some other political parties. National Democratic Alliance formed government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The United Progressive Alliance led coalition government was formed under the Prime Minister ship of Dr. Manmohan Singh coalition politics is also playing an important role at state level.


There were other five main developments and events that occurred in Indian politics after 1989:


1. End of congress system


2. Mandal issue


3. New economic reforms


4. Babri Masjid Issues


5. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi



Question 4.

“In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?


Answer:

The organisation of coalition government has become a regular feature of Indian political system. It is a hard fact that in the era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology. Non-principal alliance of political parties before and after the election is an important feature of Indian politics. To gain power or for some other interests political parties are always ready to have non-principled alliance. In 1989 elections, National Front emerged as a potent political force and no other party got a clear majority. National Front government was formed at the centre with outside support of BJP and some other political parties. After the 12th Lok Sabha elections in 1998, BJP led coalition government was formed. But the government could not last for thirteen months, because after the withdrawal of support by A.I.A.D.M.K., the BJP led coalition government failed to secure the confidence vote.


In the 13th Lok Sabha election in 1999, National Democratic Alliance consisting of 24 parties secured majority in the Lok Sabha. The policies and ideology of many political parties were opposite to the policies of other parties. National Democratic Alliance formed government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The NDA was a large size alliance and it faced many problems. However, it completed its tenure under the capable leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.


In April-May 2004, election for 14th Lok Sabha was held. The United Progressive Alliance led coalition government was formed under the Prime Minister ship of Dr. Manmohan Singh United Progressive Alliance is supported by the left parties from outside. Ideology of Congress and left parties i.e., CPI and CPI (M) are different and that is why many times left parties have threatened the UPA government to withdraw the support.


Non-principled alliance has given rise to the politics of opportunism and the politics of expediency. Almost all political parties are always ready to enter into an unholy alliance with other parties to achieve their selfish ends.



Question 5.

Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.


Answer:

Bharatiya Janata Party is a major National Political Party in India. The B.J.P. believes in one nation, one people, and one culture.


Emergence of BJP as a Powerful Force in Post- Emergency Politics:


Though Janata Party faced a split in July 1979 on the issue of dual membership but this controversy did not end even after the split.


On 5th April, 1980, the members of former Jan Sangh group called a two day national convention at Delhi and decided to form a new party. On 6th April 1980, a new political organisation i.e., the Bharatiya Janata Party was born under the president ship of former Foreign Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. On April 24, 1980 the Election Commission granted recognition to the group led by Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee as a ‘national party’ with the distinct name of the Bharatiya Janata Party, The B.J.P. was also provisionally allotted the symbol of ‘Lotus.’


In the 10th Lok Sabha elections in 1991 B.J.P. secured 119 seats and formed the government in U.P. In 1991, the B.J.P. leader L.K. Advani was recognised as leader o the opposition in the Lok Sabha. In the elections held for 11th Lok Sabha in 1996 the B.J.P. emerged as the largest party securing 161 seats. Its leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee was appointed Prime Minister and he was asked to prove his majority up to 31st o May, 1996 but Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee resigned on 28 May, 1996 because he failed to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha. Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the recognised opposition leader in the 11th Lok Sabha. In the 12th Lok Sabha elections held in Feb-March 1998, B.J.P. SECURED 182 SEATS. The B.J.P. and its allies secured 252 seats in the 12th Lok Sabha elections. Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was elected as the Party leader by the newly elected B.J.P. Lok Sabha members. Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was appointed the Prime Minister. In the 13th Lok Sabha election held in Sept.-Oct. 1999, B.J.P. secured 182 seats whereas B.J.P. and its allies secured 297 seats. On 10th Oct. 1999 National Democratic Alliance elected Sh. Atal Bihari Vajpayee as its leader and he was appointed as the Prime Minister. In 14th Lok Sabha elections held in 2004, B.J.P. secured only 138 seats and lost the power in centre. In 15th Lok Sabha election held in 2009, B.J.P. secured only 116 seats. In the 16th Lok Sabha election held in 2014, BJP won 282 seats, and formed the government under the leadership of Sh. Narender Modi.



Question 6.

In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.


Answer:

Indian National Congress is the oldest, well organized and very important political party of India. After independence, congress party dominated from 1947-1967 and from 1971-1977, as well as from 1980-1989. No doubt there is a decline of congress dominance but still congress has great influence in Indian politics. Congress is the still most important national party of India.


In the 10th Lok Sabha elections in may-June in 1991, congress secured 225 seats. In april-may1996, 11th Lok Sabha was held and the party only secured 141 seats. In February-march, 1998 congress secured 142 seats in the 12th Lok Sabha elections. In the 13th Lok Sabha elections held in September-october1991, congress party secured 114 seats. It was their worst performance in this history of Indian elections. In the 14th Lok Sabha elections held in April-may 2004, party won 145 seats and formed the seats with alliance under Dr. Manmohan Singh. The continuity of UPA till now proved the success of congress party. In the 15th Lok Sabha held in April-may 2009, the congress party won 206 seats and again formed the government.


Not only at the centre but in many states also congress party is in power, for example Maharashtra, Haryana, Assam, etc. In those states where congress party is not in power, it is playing an effective and constructive role of opposition. In fact, congress party has a great influence on the politics of the country because it has influenced almost all the states of India, moreover social base of congress is broader than the other parties of India.



Question 7.

Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.


Answer:

Party system is essential for democratic system of government. Many people think that two-party system is required for successful democracy. For example in England and the U.S.A, democracy is successful due to the two-party system. In this system, government is stable and responsible.


In India multi-party system exists. Up to 1967, Indian politics was dominated by congress party. But after 1967 gradually collision politics developed. After 1989, collision government is the Main feature of Indian party system. In 2014, the election commission recognised 6 national parties and 54 states or regional parties. Present party system is working very successfully in India. It has following advantages:


1. Representation to all shades of opinion – An important advantage of present party system is that in the legislature, all the shades of opinion gets representation. In India there exist various political parties which represent different section of people or different shades of opinion.


2. More choice to voters – In India due to multiple party system voters enjoys a greater degree of independence and choice because so many political parties contest the elections.


3. Cultural Pluralism – Present party system is the best, because in India there are several distinct cultural and ethnic religious and linguistic caste groups. Two party systems cannot satisfy the different cultural groups.


4. Satisfying regional feelings and aspirations – present party system satisfies regional feelings and aspirations of the people in fact, regional parties contribute in the strength to the federalism while underscoring the need of fulfilling the regional aspirations.



Question 8.

Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests…. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. — Zoya Hasan

(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.

(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.

(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?


Answer:

(b) The Party system in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the congress system destroyed itself but the fragmentation of the congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self- representation, which raises question about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests.


(b) An important test facing the policy is to evolve a party system of political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interest. To unsolved a party system to accommodate diverse interest but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for dalits only.


(c) It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interest to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.


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