Reading And Analysis Of Maps Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 8th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Exercise Pg. 6
Question 1.

In what ways do you think did the sailors influence the making of the maps in early times?


Answer:

Sailors played an important role in influencing the making of the maps in earlier times because the period of 15th century happened to be an age of discovery and exploration which popularised the map and its importance. For example – since the trade route to India across the Mediterranean had been blocked by the Arabs, the Western European traders began to search for other routes to India. Thus, Columbus went westwards and discovered America while Vasco Da Gama went around Africa and reached India, showing the immense importance of mapping further locations which were discovered by different travellers.



Question 2.

Why do you think did the map makers place their own country in the middle of the map?


Answer:

Since the period of 15th century happened to be an age of discovery and exploration which popularised the map and its importance, map makers tended to explore places, keeping their own countries at the centre of mapping. Such an attempt helped in exploring the round shape of the earth, which was previously presumed to be a flat-disc.




Exercise Pg. 8
Question 1.

Do you think this free access to maps is a good thing? Why?


Answer:

Free access to maps as compared to the scenario in the earlier times wherein they were kept as secrets is good in the sense that it has provided the opportunities for research in this field. Researches in turn help in acquiring greater knowledge about particular aspects and regions and in turn help to serve the people better.

However, free access to maps is a matter of concern because they can lead to a growth in crime against humanity such as the rise in no. of terrorist attacks.



Question 2.

Why do you think did the colonial powers invest so much money to prepare detailed maps?


Answer:

The colonial powers invested a lot in preparing detailed maps of the different regions of the world because maps helped them in fighting their way into interiors of the continents. They crossed the mountains, deserts and rivers and observed the local people to get the necessary information. This information and the maps enabled the colonial powers to establish their rule over these areas and exploit their resources.



Question 3.

Find out about the lives of some of the great explorers like David Livingstone, Stanley, Amundsen etc. Find out who sponsored their expeditions and why.


Answer:

During the ancient period, there were a no. of travellers and sailors from countries in Europe and elsewhere who travelled distant locations to explore new regions and write vast accounts of their observations. Great explorers such as David Livingstone, Stanley and Amundsen were amongst some of these names.

Students can find out about these explorers and know greater details about their experiences and contributions to the discovery of the earth’s regions.



Question 4.

Can you suggest how maps can be used to plan and set up new schools and colleges? What are the different kinds of maps that would have to be studied for this?


Answer:

Maps provide us with a wide variety of details related to a particular region including area of land available, type of area, people residing in the area etc.

Therefore, maps can help in detecting the accurate location for setting up new schools and colleges by providing information such as geographical, navigational and political. It can thus prove to be helpful in also identifying areas with less no. of educational institutes such as villages and towns.



Question 5.

If someone wants to choose an appropriate place to set up a hospital what kind of maps would be useful to them? Make a list.


Answer:

A map describing the topography (the arrangement of the natural and artificial features of a particular area) of a region would be an essential map for identifying a large area in order to set up a hospital. This would further help in identifying areas having less no. of hospitals and medical services.

Another map i.e. a navigational map (showing the directions to reach a particular place) would further help in deciding the appropriate location which would be accessible for all.



Question 6.

Why do you think are maps useful to armies in times of war?


Answer:

Maps are a very good source of information to armies in times of war because of the detailed information they provided about the location, population, interiors and way of life of a particular region.

Maps were highly in demand during the World Wars I and II and were often kept as secrets so that their enemies could not use them.




Exercise Pg. 13
Question 1.

In this book, there are different thematic maps. Make a table to identify the different information given for your district from the different types of maps mentioned.


Answer:

Students can collect thematic maps available for their particular region and identify such information. A map not only locates places but also focuses on aspects beyond that and therefore can serve to be the most important tool for acquiring necessary information about their region and surrounding areas.




Exercise Pg. 17
Question 1.

You may be aware about the weather report in the daily newspapers and T.V news channels. Try to collect, observe and interpret the weather map.


Answer:

The Indian Meteorological Department analyses and issues advisories and focuses on weather forecasting for places all over India.

Students can find various weather reports in accordance with particular regions and analyse weather maps to find out about the details related to climate change and weather forecast.




Improve Your Learning
Question 1.

Study the School atlas carefully by looking at various thematic maps.


Answer:

An atlas is a book which consists of maps and locations of different regions of the world.

A thematic map is a type of map designed to show a particular theme connected with a geographical area. Themes may include, for example, cultural, political or social aspects of a region.


Students can make use of their atlas in order to locate and analyse such maps.



Question 2.

Do you think the use of maps has changed between the time of ancient Greeks and now? In what way is it similar and different?



Answer:

The uses of maps have changed to a great extent over a long period of time i.e. from the time of ancient Greeks to the present day twentieth century.



Question 3.

Many people believe that making of maps by the Colonial powers was a more powerful tool for exploitation and control of the colonies than guns. Do you agree?


Answer:

1. Mapping was a powerful tool for exploitation and control of the colonies because maps provided a great deal of information about a region such as the different places, climate, crops, and mineral resources.

2. Such information enabled the colonial powers to exploit the resources of a region and establish their rule.


3. In India when the British established their rule, they began making detailed maps of the interiors of the country. They also established a department called Survey of India.


4. One of the most important geographical surveys was carried out in 1802 by William Lambton, starting from Chennai (south) to the Himalayas (north) in order to determine the length of a longitude and also the heights of various places.



Question 4.

In what ways were the maps prepared by the British different from the one made by Ptolemy or Idrisi?


Answer:

1. The maps prepared by the British were in sharp contrast to the maps prepared by Greek and Arab cartographers such as Ptolemy and Idrisi.

2. Although, these cartographers were successful in making some of the earliest maps of the world, giving correct information of Europe and nearby places visited by sailors and traders, they were not able to give much information about the interiors of places. For example – map prepared by Al-Idrisi showed only northern parts of Africa and lacked details about Southern Africa and Southeast Asia.


3. However, the maps prepared by the British gave detailed maps of the interiors of the country. They also established a department called Survey of India.


4. One of the most important geographical surveys was carried out in 1802 by William Lambton, starting from Chennai (south) to the Himalayas (north) in order to determine the length of a longitude and also the heights of various places.



Question 5.

Choose two places of your choice from the Atlas and find out about them from atleast five different thematic maps. Then compare the life in the two places – what would be similar and what would be different?


Answer:

The atlas refers to a book comprising of different types of maps including thematic maps.

Thematic maps are those maps which describe a particular theme about a particular region such as political, social, cultural etc.


Students can locate different thematic maps and compare the life and various other related aspects with the help of an atlas.



Question 6.

Read the text of page number 8 about the “Use of maps in our times” and answer the following question:

What are the various purposes for which maps are used in our times?


Answer:

In our times, maps are used for the following activities-

1. They are extensively used for planning and development of countries.


2. Planning requires identification of the resources available in a region and the problems faced by it. For example – maps of regions having very low levels of drinking water can be made. Further various thematic maps showing resources of that region can be compared and based on the comparison, possible solutions can be brought up.


3. Planning of agricultural development, setting up of industries, building roads and hospitals and schools is also carried out with the help of maps.


4. Maps are also used by companies to plan their business and work. For example – a mobile phone company that wishes to spread its networks in an area will need to maps of villages, towns, hills and forests to set up microwave towers.


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