Impact Of Colonialism In India Class 9th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 9th Social Studies AP Board Solution

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Question 1.

How did people use the forests before the rule of the British? Why was there less danger of the forests being fully destroyed in those days?


Answer:

Forests were a very important part of the Adivasis and villagers who lived in and near the forest area of Andhra Pradesh. The forest area was used in the following way:

1. Forest was used for hunting, gathering tubers, fruit, herbs, flower, and for grazing their cattle.


2. Some forest area were cut down, the trees were burnt and the land was cleared for cultivation of crops.


3. The villagers and Adivasis cut the wood to build their home and other related things.


4. They also took certain things for personal use. For example, they took wood or any other forest produce to buy other things from the market such as salt and iron. But they never took any such things from the forest to earn some profit.


5. They also protected the forest. Even when they cut the trees, they made sure that only the old ones are cut and allowed the new ones to grow. They did not cut large tracts of forests but only small parts to save the forest.


6. They also gifted ivory, animal skin and honey to the kings and emperors.


7. Many Adivasis also practiced shifting cultivation or jhum agriculture.


Although a large portion of the forest was cleared for making the field, and there was tension between farmers and tribals, a large part of the land remained under the forest cover. There were no laws to control the use of the forest by any king, as long as the people living in the forest did not harm the kingdom's security. For many centuries, the Adivasis lived in the forest peacefully. Hence, there was a lesser danger of forests being destroyed fully.



Question 2.

Against whom did the adivasis revolt? In what ways did they demonstrate their anger and protest? Give some examples.


Answer:

The Adivasis revolted against the British rule in India.

They protested in many places. During these protests they would burn down the police station, houses of money lender, posts of the forest department and at times the entire Jungle itself.


A few major revolts are mentioned below:


1. Santhal Revolt: It was led by the Santhals in Jharkhand in 1855-1856. They began robbing and killing the money lenders and zamindars. The declared a free state of their own and decided to fight the British rule. However, due to the lack of advanced machinery as held by the British army, Santhals were unable to withstand on their own. In the end, 15,000 Santhals were killed and the revolt ended.


2, Birsa Munda Revolt: Another revolt was led by Birsa in Jharkhand in late 1800. The Munda adivasi of the Chota Nagpur Plateau thought of Birsa as a God. David against the British rule that had deprived them of their own rights over the forest. The leaders of this rebellion were arrested and Birsa died in 1988.


3. Revolt in Kumaon: In 1921, Kumaon, the peasants did not co-operate with the Forest Department. They did not obey any rules laid by them. They even tried to burn the Jungle down. They refused to do forced labor for the forest department.


Finally the British government decided to make its policies less strict. They even introduced new laws in some areas stating that nobody could purchase the land of the Adivasis except them.



Question 3.

How were the revolts of the Adivasis suppressed by the British?


Answer:

The British had introduced new laws and regulations which worsened the conditions of the Adivasis. Many of them had to become labours for the Forest Department on the contractor. Some of them became bonded labour for money lenders. Kim very easy for people from outside to settle down in their area and occupied Island. They were beaten up and fined for unnecessary things, the women were ill-treated and bribery became very common. So the Adivasis decided to Revolt against the British. Some of the major revolts are mentioned below.

1. Santhal Revolt: It was led by the Santhals in Jharkhand in 1855-1856. They began robbing and killing the money lenders and zamindars. They declared a free state of their own and decided to fight the British rule. However, due to the lack of advanced machinery as held by the British army, Santhals were unable to withstand on their own. In the end, 15,000 Santhals were killed and the revolt ended.


2. Birsa Munda Revolt: Another revolt was led by Birsa in Jharkhand in late 1800. The Munda adivasi of the Chota Nagpur Plateau thought of Birsa as a God. David against the British rule that had deprived them of their own rights over the forest. The leaders of this rebellion were arrested and Birsa died in 1988.


3. Revolt in Kumaon: In 1921, Kumaon, the peasants did not co-operate with the Forest Department. They did not obey any rules laid by them. They even tried to burn the Jungle down. They refused to do forced labor for the forest department.


In all of the above three mentioned revolt, one feature was common. The Adivasis faced defeat by the British rule. The British rule sought to cruel measures to win this battle. However, after the revolt of 1921, the British government decided that they must change their policies. So, they made their rules less strict. They even introduced a new law in a few areas stating that the land of the Adivasis could not be purchased from anybody outside that area.



Question 4.

Make a timeline to show when Adivasi protests occurred in different parts of India.

Find out where each of these Adivasi struggles took place, and mark their locations on a map of India.


Answer:

1855-1856: Santhal Revolt, in Jharkhand


1874 - Birsa Munda Revolt, in Chora Nagpur plateau (present-day Jharkhand)


1921 - Kumaon revolt, in Uttrakhand




Question 5.

What problems did the Indian industrialists have with the British government?


Answer:

The Indian Industrialist faced a number of problems under the British colonial rule:

1. Unlike the Europeans, the Indian Industrialist did not have any access to the British government authorities.


2. They did not have a significant share in the foreign trade market which led in a shortage of funds.


3. They did not have many factories, banks and ships under their control.


4. Although they received help from the government in the form of tax on foreign goods, it was not adequate.


5. The required to resources and facilities such as Railways, roads, electricity, coal and iron. But the British government did not focus on the development in these areas.


6. They also had to buy all of their machines from abroad because those industries which would manufacture the required machinery was not started in India.


7. Education was not given adequate importance. This led to a lack of educated personnel. This increased the reliance on foreigners for industrial development.


Thus, the Indian industrialists faced many disadvantages in this regard.



Question 6.

During British rule, why was it easier for European companies rather than Indian companies to set up industries? Give a few reasons.


Answer:

The Indian industry had to suffer a lot at the hands of the British rule. This made it difficult to set up industries. The Europeans, on the other hand, were completely opposite to India in this regard. This was because of the following reasons:

1. A large number of factories, banks and ships were under the command of the Europeans.


2. The Europeans had easier access to all the types of officers and authorities of the British government.


3. Most of the foreign trade was under their control. This eliminated the issue of shortage of funds.


All of these factors made it easier for them to set up an industry in India. The Indian industrialists, on the other hand, did not have any such access. So, they faced a disadvantage in this regard.



Question 7.

Labour laws were first made for child laborers, then for women and lastly for men. Why were these laws made in this order?


Answer:

The government introduced the Factory Act in 1881. According to this act, any child below the age of 7 cannot be employed in a factory. The children between 7 to 12 years cannot be made to work more than 9 hours per day. They must be given a break of 1 hour every day. They were also entitled to receive a leave of 4 days every month.

In 1891 a new set of laws great introduced for the welfare of women. According to this law, they cannot be made to work more than 11 hours per day. They must be given a break of one and a half hour every day.


Finally, labor laws were introduced for men. This was because they were the largest in number as compared to others. According to the Factory Act of 1911, an adult male laborer could work only 12 hours every day. He was also entitled to receive a break of half an hour after every 6 hours of work.



Question 8.

How could education affect industrial development? Discuss in the class.


Answer:

With the development of industries in India, the British government introduced many laws and regulations. Most of these were in favor of their own government. The Indian Industrialist suffered a lot because their demands and requirements were not focused upon. For example, the need for Railway, road, coal, and iron was completely ignored by the British government. During this period, education played a very important role. The Indian Industrialist required the help of scientists, engineers, and technicians. In fact, educated workers were required at every level of the industrial work. Sadly, the British government did not give any importance to the education sector in our country. So the Indian Industrialist had to rely on the abilities of the foreigners because of the shortage of skilled personnel in India. So education played a very important role in industrial development.



Question 9.

Identify the large industrial cities on an outline map of India during the 20th century.


Answer:

A few large industrial cities during the 20th century are :

1. Kanpur


2. Mumbai


3. Ahmedabad


4. Chennai


5. Kolkatta



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