OMTEX CLASSES: The ghats, coastal plains & islands | GEOGRAPHY SSC | TEXTUAL QUESTIONS.

The ghats, coastal plains & islands | GEOGRAPHY SSC | TEXTUAL QUESTIONS.

The ghats, coastal plains & islands

Q. Fill in the blanks

Q1. The Southern Ghats are named ....... .  (Anai Mudi, Kemmangundi, Nilgiri, Anna Malai)

Ans1. The Southern Ghats are named Anna Malai.

Q2. The ...... islands located to the east of the middle Andaman is the only active volcano in India.  (Nicobar, Barran, Maldives, Lakshadweep)

Ans2. The Barran islands located to the east of the middle Andaman is the only active volcano in India.

Q3. Malabar coast has ....... which are locally known as kayals. (canals, rivers, backwaters, tanks)

Ans3. Malabar coast has backwaters which are locally known as kayals.

Q4. The highest peak in the western ghats is ....... . (Annaimudi, Dodabetta, Annamali, K2)

Ans4. The highest peak in the western ghats is Annaimudi.

Q5. Most of the land in the Rann of Kachchh is in the form of ...... . (Salt marshes, Basalt, Rocks, Granites)

Ans5. Most of the land in the Rann of Kachchh is in the form of salt marshes.

Q6. ....... is one of the longest backwater areas of Kerala.(Salem, Kozikode, Kovalam, Vembnad)

Ans6. Vembnad is one of the longest backwater areas of Kerala.

Q7. Soils in the Western Ghats are ....... in colour. (blue, black, brownish red, yellow)

Ans7. Soils in the Western Ghats are brownish red in colour.

Q8. The Eastern Ghats are supposed to be physiographically converging with the Western Ghats in the ...... Hills. (Aravalli, Biligiri, Niligiri, Himalayan)

Ans8. The Eastern Ghats are supposed to be physiographically converging with the Western Ghats in the Niligiri Hills.

Q9. About ...... islands from the group of Andaman-Nicobar islands are inhabited.
(38, 50, 55, 25)  

Ans9. About 38 islands from the group of Andaman-Nicobar islands are inhabited.

Q. Match the column

Q1. Andaman and Nicobar = Fringing reefs
Q2. Eastern Ghats = Granite
Q3. Northern part of Western Ghats = Basalt
Q4. Kerala = Koragas
Q5. Karnataka = Todas
Q6. Palghat =  A gap in Ghats
Q7. Agatti =  An airport
Q8. Saputara = A hill station
Q9. Port Blair = Capital city

Q. Answer in brief

Q1. How do the coastal islands along west and east coast differ from one another?

Ans1.
The coastal islands along west
The coastal islands along east

Physiography

These islands are of coral origin, which are supposed to have been developed around volcanic peaks. In Andaman and Nicobar the coral exist more or less in the form of fringing reefs around some of the islands.
They are in the form of atolls, reefs or banks. There are no atolls.

Natural Vegetation

The Arabian Sea Islands native flora includes small trees and bushes. The Bay of Bengal Islands show luxurious growth of natural vegetation.
There are not many evergreen forests and dense mangrove forests. There are a large number of endemic plants, north Andaman has wet evergreen forests and the density as well as the diversity of plants goes on increasing as one moves towards the South Nicobar Islands.

Industries

Main industry of Lakshadweep is coconut fibre extraction and production of fibre items. The Andaman-Nicobar group has some small scale, village and handicrafts units.
The government of India runs coir fibre factories. These units produce coir fibre coir yarn, curled-fibre and corridor matting. Small Scale Industrial units are engaged in a variety of activities, such as production of polythene bags, paints and varnish, shell crafts etc.

Tourism

Widespread tourism across entire Lakshadweep. Water sports activities such as Scuba diving, windsurfing, water skiing etc. are quite popular activities amongst tourists. Tourism in Andaman-Nicobar Island is relatively restricted to a few islands like Port Blair and nearby islands.

Q2. What are the environmental problems of the western ghats and the west coastal region ?

Ans2.
- The Western Ghats region is considered to be the region with tremendous water resources and the Ghats have large reserves of mineral wealth.
- The Ghats have a rich biodiversity. However the region with such a wealth of natural resources has a number of environmental problems.
- Due to exploitation of the natural resources it is difficult to protect and maintain the faunal diversity in the region.
- The coastal regions have been the areas of high population density.
- With increasing pressure of population, the level of human interventions goes on increasing.
- The coastal ecosystems are considered to be fragile ecosystems.
- Hence any intervention is likely to lead to environmental problems.

Q3. What are the factors that make the Western Ghats and Western Coast the favoured destination of tourists?

Ans3.
- The Western Ghats have a number of hill stations.
- These include Saputara in Gujarat, Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra, Kodaikanal in Tamilnadu and Munnar in Kerala.
- There are number of national parks and sanctuaries.
- Along the coastal tracts, there are beaches like Srivardhan and Guhagar in Maharashtra, Kolwa and Kalangut beach in Goa, Karawar beach in Karnataka and Kovalam beach in Kerala.
- Besides these centres of nature tourism, there are a large number of centres of cultural importance like places of worship and forts.
- These factors make the Western Ghats and Western Coast the favoured destination of tourists.

Q4. Write in detail about the climate in the Islands.

Ans4.
- Lakshadweep islands experiences a tropical climate.
- It is hot and humid leading to sultry conditions.
- The summer temperature varies from 220C to 350C.
- In winters, the temperature ranges between 200C and 320C.
- There are pleasant sea breezes.
- The Andaman and Nicobar Island has warm tropical climate.
- The average temperatures range between 230C and 320C. It is neither too hot nor too cold.
- Due to the insular location the humidity is quite high.
- The Bay of Bengal branch of the monsoon brings rains to these islands.
- Port Blair receives an annual rainfall above 3000 mm.
- The monsoon rains starts in this area almost from May and continue till the end of December. It receives rainfall from the SW as well as NE monsoon.

Q5. Write in detail about the Population and Settlement in the Western Ghats.

Ans5.
- The Western Ghats have low population density because of uneven topography.
- Most of the population is distributed in a large number of small villages and scattered hamlets.
- The Western Ghats have concentration of tribal population distributed in different parts.
- Most of the tribal population are dependent heavily on the forest for their livehood.
- Most of the tribal population is now slowly taking up agricultural activity.
- Bhils and Warali in Maharashtra, Todas in Karnataka and Koragas in Kerala are the tribals in this area.
- Urbanization is quite low in the Ghats section and it has only a few tourist centres.
- The adjoining coastal areas along the Arabian Sea have a high density population as number of urban centres that have developed along the coast at port locations.
- Mumbai and the adjoining coastal districts of Thane and Raigad, and Surat in Gujarat have high densities.

Q6. Write in detail about the natural hazards and environmental problems in Eastern Ghats and the Eastern Coastal Plains.

Ans6.
- The Eastern Coastal Plains are vulnerable to frequent tropical cyclones.
- The area has witnessed number of such events in historical as well as recent past.
- Odisha Super Cyclone of 2000 and tsunami of 2004 had devastated a large portion of the coastal plains.
- High level of industrial development and concentration of population have led to a number of environmental problems, particularly in the Eastern Coastal Plains.
- The coastal ecosystems, particularly along the Odisha and Tamil Nadu coast, are threatened due to high level of pollution in the region.
- The Ghats section has rich mineral deposits and their extraction is causing depletion of biotic reserves in the area.


Q. Write short note on

Q1. Natural Vegetation in the Western Ghats.

Ans1.
- There is luxuriant growth of natural vegetation due to high rainfall, hot and humid climate in the Western Ghats section.
- A portion of south Sahyadri is gifted with tropical rain forests.
- In the south there are typical �shola� forests having a variety of species.
- Eucalyptus and teak are to be seen in the plantation forests.
- In the Central Ghats dense forest areas are located in some parts.

Q2. Industries in the Andaman and Nicobar groups of islands.

Ans2.
- The Andaman-Nicobar group has some small scale, village and handicrafts units.
- There are shells and wood-based handicraft units as well.
- Small Scale Industrial units are engaged in a variety of activities, such as production of polythene bags, paints and varnish, shell crafts etc.

Q3. Agriculture in the Eastern Coastal Plains.

Ans3.
- The soils in the Eastern Coastal Plains is young alluvial soils which get replenished annually, thus retaining their fertility levels.
- The East Coastal Plains have some of the most fertile lands of our country.
- Rice is cultivated with three cycles in a year, particularly in the Kaveri Delta area.
- All the delta regions and adjoining plains between the coast and the Ghats have dominance of rice cultivation.

Q4. Industries in The Western Coastal Plain.

Ans4.
- The Western Coastal Plain has a large number of industrial centres.
- Ahmadabad-Surat in Gujarat is a major textile industrial region of our country.
- Mumbai-Pune industrial region has textiles, chemicals, engineering, electrical, pharmaceuticals, transport equipment, plastic and synthetic goods, leather goods and ship-building industries.
- There are number of port locations like Panji, Manglore, Kozikode and Thiruvananthapuram in the Western Coastal Plain.

Q5. Soils in the Eastern Ghats.

Ans5.
- The soils from the Eastern Ghats are mostly developed over ancient rocks like granite and gneisses.
- These are mostly in the form of different variants of red soils.
- Most dominant amongst them is red loamy soils.
- These soils do not retain moisture because of the loamy or sandy nature. Hence, these are generally not very fertile soils.

Q6. Fisheries in the Islands.

Ans6.
- The Islands have rich marine life. Hence fishing is the main livelihood of the islanders.
- Numerous varieties of fish are available in the lagoons.
- Tuna sharks, crabs, shrimp, lobsters etc. are found in plenty around the Lakshadweep Sea.
- Tuna fish and fish products are exported from these islands.

Q. Give Reason

Q1. Rainfall influences the climate of the western ghats and the coastal plains.

Ans1.

- The Western Ghats run parallel to the west coast and act as a barrier for the SW monsoon winds.
- This causes heavy rainfall in the region during the monsoon period.
- The rainfall increases from the coastal region towards the Ghats where it reaches around 4000 mm.
- The climate of the coastal plains is hot and humid during the monsoon season due to heavy rains and hot and dry in the rest of the year.
- In the Ghats region, the climate is humid but not as hot as in the plains.
- Hence the rainfall influences the climate of the western ghats and the coastal plains.

Q2. The Western Coast does not have vast extending plain lands.

Ans2.

- Apart from the region of Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat Coast, there are no flat grounds in the Western Coast.
- The Konkan Coast is a narrow strip of land between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats and the width of this strip ranges between 50 km. and 100 km.
- The Konkan coast is more or less a rocky coast.
- The southernmost portion of the west coast has some relatively flat lands.
- Thus the western Coast does not have vast extending plain lands.

Q3. Compared to the Bay of Bengal islands the Arabian Sea islands receive less rainfall.

Ans3.

- Arabian Sea islands of Lakshadweep are mostly flat without any hills and the land in any island does not rise above 5 m from sea level.
- This reduces the possibility of topographical rain.
- Lakshadweep islands receive rainfall from the SW monsoon mostly.
- Andaman-Nicobar islands receive rainfall from both the SW and NE monsoon.
- Hence, compared to the Bay of Bengal islands the Arabian Sea islands receive less rainfall.

Q4. Plantation agriculture is mainly confined to the southern parts of the Western Ghats

Ans4.

- Longer rainy season is the main factor that favour plantation agriculture. - It also requires vast lands.
- The Northern parts of the Western have the narrow valleys and moderate slopes and shorter rainy season.
- The Southern parts of the Western have the longer rainy season which suits plantation agriculture like tea and coffee.
- Hence Plantation agriculture is mainly confined to the southern parts of the Western Ghats.