Endangered Species in India

XYZ COLLEGE/SCHOOL
Name: ABC
Address: Room No.- 31 M.G. ROAD Dharavi        Cross Road Mumbai -400 017
Contact No. : 9998887770
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Name Of It Centre & Branch : DADAR
Branch Code : WWE
Branch No. : Dom – 09/17/30
Project  Name : Endangered Species Of India
Date Of Submission : 18-09-2017
Endangered species of india


SOURCE :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_panda

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gharial

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_elephant#/media/File:Asiatic_Elephant_Kabini.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_crane

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rhinoceros



Indian rhinoceros



Introduction
The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicorns), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq. mi). Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment.
The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gang etic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced their range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal. In the early 1990s, between 1,870 to 1,895 rhinos were estimated to have been alive. In 2015, a total of 3,555 Indian rhinoceros are estimated to live in the wild.

Populations

In 2006, the total population was estimated to be 2,575 individuals, of which 2,200 lived in Indian protected areas:
  •                                in Kaziranga National Park: 1,855 — increased from 366 in 1966; 2,048 rhinos were estimated in 2009.
  •                                in Jaldapara National Park: 108 — increased from 84 in 2002
  •                                in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary: 81 — increased from 54 in 1987
  •                                in Orang National Park: 68 — increased from 35 in 1972
  •                               in Gorumara: 27 — increased from 22 in 2002
  •                               in Dudhwa National Park: 21
  •                               in Manas National Park: 19
  •                               in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary: 2
In 2000, about 2,000 rhinos were estimated in Assam. Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary shelters the highest density of Indian rhinos in the world — with 84 individuals in 2009 in an area of 38.80 km2 (14.98 sq mi). By 2014, the population in Assam increased to 2,544 rhinos, an increase by 27% since 2006, although more than 150 individuals were killed by poachers during these years.
The population in Nepal increased by 111 individuals from 2011 to 2015, increasing by 21%. The latest rhino count was conducted from 11 April to 2 May 2015 and revealed 645 individuals living in Parsa National Park, Chitwan National Park, Bardia National Park, Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve and respective buffer zones in the Terai Arc Landscape.
In Pakistan's Lal Suhanra National Park, two rhinos from Nepal were introduced in 1983 but have not bred so far.

Threats

Sport hunting became common in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Indian rhinos were hunted relentlessly and persistently. Reports from the middle of the 19th century claim that some British military officers in Assam individually shot more than 200 rhinos. By 1908, the population in Kaziranga had decreased to around 12 individuals.] In the early 1900s, the species had declined to near extinction.
Poaching for rhinoceros horn became the single most important reason for the decline of the Indian rhino after conservation measures were put in place from the beginning of the 20th century, when legal hunting ended. From 1980 to 1993, 692 rhinos were poached in India. In India's Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, 41 rhinos were killed in 1983, virtually the entire population of the sanctuary. By the mid-1990s, poaching had rendered the species extinct there.
In 1950, Chitwan’s forest and grasslands extended over more than 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) and were home to about 800 rhinos. When poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for settlement, and poaching of wildlife became rampant. The Chitwan population has repeatedly been jeopardized by poaching; in 2002 alone, poachers killed 37 animals to saw off and sell their valuable horns.
Six methods of killing rhinos have been recorded:                                                            
·            Shooting is by far the most common method used; rhino horn traders hire sharpshooters and often supply them with rifles and ammunition.
·            Trapping in a pit depends largely on the terrain and availability of grass to cover it; pits are dug out in such a way that a fallen animal has little room to manoeuvre with its head slightly above the pit, so that it is easy to saw off the horn.
·            Electrocution is used where high voltage powerlines pass through or near a protected area, to which poachers hook a long, insulated rod connected to a wire, which is suspended above a rhino path.
·            Poisoning by smearing zinc phosphide rat poison or pesticides on salt licks frequently used by rhinos is sometimes used.
·            Spearing has only been recorded in Chitwan National Park.
·            A noose, which cuts through the rhino's skin, kills it by strangulation.
·            Poaching, mainly for the use of the horn in traditional Chinese medicine, has remained a constant and has led to decreases in several important populations. Apart from this, serious declines in quality of habitat have occurred in some areas, due to:
·            severe invasion by alien plants into grasslands affecting some populations;
·            demonstrated reductions in the extent of grasslands and wetland habitats due to woodland encroachment and silting up of beels;
·            grazing by domestic livestock.
The species is inherently at risk because over 70% of its population occurs at a single site, Kaziranga National Park. Any catastrophic event such as disease, civil disorder, poaching, or habitat loss would have a devastating impact on the Indian rhino's status. However, small population of rhinos may be prone to inbreeding depression.
Conservation
Rhinoceros unicornis has been listed in CITES Appendix I since 1975. The Indian and Nepalese governments have taken major steps towards Indian rhinoceros conservation, especially with the help of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and other non-governmental organizations. In the early 1980s, a rhino translocation scheme was initiated. The first pair of rhinos was reintroduced from Nepal's Terai to Pakistan's Lal Suhanra National Park in Punjab in 1982.

In India

In 1910, all rhino hunting in India became prohibited. In 1984, five rhinos were relocated to Dudhwa National Park — four from the fields outside the Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary and one from Goalpara.

Bengal  florican

Introduction

The Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), also called Bengal bustard, is a bustard species native to the Indian subcontinent, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List because fewer than 1,500 individuals were estimated to be alive as of 2013. It is the only member of the genus Houbaropsis

Status and conservation

Restricted to tiny fragments of grassland scattered across South and Southeast Asia, the Bengal florican is the world's rarest  bustard. It is known to have become increasingly threatened by land conversion for intensive agriculture, particularly for dry season rice production. Poaching continues to be a problem in Southeast Asia, while the South Asian population is down to less than 350 adult birds, about 85% of which are found in India. Though more threatened, birds in Southeast Asia may number as many as in South Asia but more probably closer to or even less than 1,000 adults.
The population has decreased dramatically in past decades. It may be that in India the decline is coming to a halt and that stocks in Dibru-Saikhowa and Kaziranga National Parks and Dudhwa Tiger Reserve are safe at very low levels. Still, its global status is precarious and it was consequently uplisted from Endangered to Critically Endangered in the 2007 IUCN Red List.
In Cambodia, it is mostly found in Kampong Thom Province; lesser numbers are found in Siem Reap Province and remnants might persist in Banteay Meanchey, Battambang and Pursat Provinces. Its rate of decline there has accelerated in the early 21st century, and the bird's numbers in Southeast Asia might fall to effective extinction in the early 2010s. The government of Cambodia has taken a significant step towards protecting important habitat for the Bengal florican. Along witih 350 square kilometers being designated as "Integrated Farming and Biodiversity Areas", where land-use practices are adapted to also benefit the Bengal florican, a public education program to inform schoolchildren about the bird has also been undertaken. At present, the species may persist in the Ang Trapaing Thmor Crane Sanctuaryand perhaps Vietnam's Tràm Chim National Park, but the South Asian population is not known with certainty from any protected areas.
In Nepal, it is essentially restricted to protected areas, namely Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Bardia and Chitwan National Parks. Since 1982, the Sukla Phanta and Bardia populations appear to have been stable, but the Chitwan population has declined. In 2001, 20–28 birds were estimated in Sukla Phanta, 6–10 birds in Bardia, and 6–22 birds in Chitwan. It used to be fairly common in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve but has not been recorded there since 1990, and has not been sighted around the Koshi Barrage since the 1980s. In spring 2007, 8–9 males were recorded in Sukla Phanta and 16–18 birds estimated; one male was sighted in Bardia and 2–4 estimated; five males were sighted in Chitwan and 10–14 estimated. The population in Nepal has declined by 56% since 1982 and by 30% since 2001. In spring 2011, 17 birds were recorded from nine different sites along a 39 km (24 mi) north-south stretch of the Koshi River. Seven were males and 10 were females. Only five individuals were recorded outside the reserve, two pairs north of Koshi Tappu, and one female seen twice near the Koshi Barrage area.
The courtship display of males has been discussed by many naturalists traveling British India, and in the modern era attracts tourists who provide revenue to locals. Studies indicate that the Bengal florican is not a particularly shy or hemerophobic species, its apparent intolerance of human settlements being chiefly due to its intolerance of land clearance for agriculture. Pastures and the traditional use of common land for villagers' tall-grass harvest (for construction and handicraft) actually seem to be tolerated quite well by the birds.
If firewood and timber is collected from grassland rather than from forests, human land use will even benefit the species. In particular, sal (Shorea robusta) and saj (Terminalia elliptica) have been identified as trees that encroach upon the florican's habitat in Nepal, and its decline in Bardia National Park is probably chiefly due to insufficient use of trees that overgrow grassland. A sustainable land-management technique that will bolster Bengal florican stocks consists of harvesting grass and particularly wood from changing tracts of land, leaving some areas unharvested each year and setting aside a few additional ones as reserve land, where grasses can grow tall for years until they are harvested. Controlled burning may be necessary when woodland encroachment is strong; it should take place before March, so that the year's offspring are not harmed. A landscape ecology approach, integrating social, biological and physical environmental elements at scales compatible with management objectives, will be needed to effectively conserve Bengal floricans and their grassland habitats.


                                                                                                                                                                                        

Gharial

Introduction
The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial, and the fish-eating crocodile, is a crocodilian of the family Gavialidae, native to the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent.[3] The global wild gharial population is estimated at fewer than 235 individuals, which are threatened by loss of riverine habitat, depletion of fish resources, and entanglement in fishing nets. As the population has declined drastically in the past 70 years, the gharial is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.[2]


The gharial is one of the longest of all living crocodilians, measuring up to 6.25 m (20.5 ft), though this is an extreme upper limit, as the average adult gharial is only 3.5 to 4.5 m (11 to 15 ft) in length.[4] With 110 sharp, interdigitated teeth in its long, thin snout, it is well adapted to catching fish, its main diet.[5] The male gharial has a distinctive boss at the end of the snout, which resembles an earthenware pot known in Hindi as ghara. The gharial's common name is derived from this similarity.[3]
Gharials once inhabited all the major river systems of the Indian Subcontinent, from the Irrawaddy River in the east to the Indus River in the west. Their distribution is now limited to only 2% of their former range. They inhabit foremost flowing rivers with high sand banks that they use for basking and building nests. They usually mate in the cold season. The young hatch before the onset of the monsoon.[5]
The gharial is one of three crocodilians native to India, the other two being the mugger crocodile and the saltwater crocodile.[6]

Threats

The gharial population is estimated to have declined from 5,000-10,000 individuals in 1946 to fewer than 235 individuals alive in 2006, a decline of 96–98% within three generations. They were killed by fishermen, overhunted for skins, trophies and indigenous medicine, and their eggs collected for consumption. Today, the remaining individuals form several fragmented subpopulations. Hunting is no longer considered a significant threat. However, the wild population of gharials declined by about 58% between 1997 and 2006 because:[2]
·            fishing and the use of gill nets increased throughout most of the present gharial habitat, even in protected areas;
·            riverine habitat decreased as dams, barrages, irrigation canals and artificial embankments were built; siltation and sand-mining changed river courses; land is used for riparian agriculture and grazing by livestock.
In December 2007, several gharials were found dead in the Chambal River. Initially, it was suspected that fishermen had illegally caught fish using nets, in which gharials became trapped and subsequently drowned. Later post mortem pathological testing of tissue samples from the dead gharials revealed high levels of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium, which together with stomach ulcers and protozoan parasites reported in most necropsies were thought to have caused their deaths.[23]

Conservation

By 1976, the estimated total population of wild gharials had declined from what is thought to have been 5,000-10,000 in the 1940s to less than 200, a decline of about 96%. The Indian government subsequently accorded the species protection under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.[5]
In 1997, the total wild population was estimated at 436 adult gharials that had declined to 182 in 2006. This drastic decline has happened within a period of nine years, well within the span of one generation, and qualifies the gharial for Critically Endangered listing by the IUCN.[2]Estimates from population surveys carried out in 2007 indicated 200–300 wild breeding adults left in the world.[24]


Asian elephant

Introduction
The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognised—E. m. maximus from Sri Lanka, the E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra.[1] Asian elephants are the largest living land animals in Asia.[4]
Since 1986, the Asian elephant has been listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as the population has declined by at least 50 percent over the last three generations, estimated to be 60–75 years. Asian elephants are primarily threatened by loss of habitat, habitat degradation, fragmentation and poaching.[3] In 2003, the wild population was estimated at between 41,410 and 52,345 individuals. Female captive elephants have lived beyond 60 years when kept in semi-natural surroundings, such as forest camps. In zoos, elephants die at a much younger age and are declining due to a low birth and high death rate.[5]
The genus Elephas originated in Sub-Saharan Africa during the Pliocene, and spread throughout Africa before emigrating into southern Asia.[2] The earliest indications of captive use of Asian elephants are engravings on seals of the Indus Valley civilization dated to the third millennium BC.[6]

Threats

The pre-eminent threats to Asian elephants today are loss, degradation and fragmentation of habitat, leading in turn to increasing conflicts between humans and elephants. They are poached for ivory and a variety of other products including meat and leather.[3]

Human–elephant conflict[edit]

Prime elephant habitat cleared for jhum—a type of shifting cultivationpracticed in Arunachal Pradesh
Elephants on the road in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
One of the major instigators of human–wildlife conflict is competition for space. Destruction of forests through logging, encroachment, slash-and-burn, shifting cultivation, and monoculture tree plantations are major threats to the survival of elephants. Human–elephant conflicts occur when elephants raid crops of shifting cultivators in fields, which are scattered over a large area interspersed with forests. Depredation in human settlements is another major area of human–elephant conflict occurring in small forest pockets, encroachments into elephant habitat, and on elephant migration routes.[50] Studies in Sri Lanka indicate that traditional slash-and-burn agriculture creates optimal habitat for elephants by creating a mosaic of successional-stage vegetation. Populations inhabiting small habitat fragments are much more liable to come into conflict with humans.[51]
Human-elephant conflict is categorized into:[52]
·            ultimate causes including growing human population, large-scale development projects and poor top-down governance;
·            proximate causes including habitat loss due to deforestation, disruption of elephant migratory routes, expansion of agriculture and illegal encroachment into protected areas.
Development such as border fencing along the India-Bangladesh border has become a major impediment to the free movement of elephants.[53] In Assam, more than 1,150 humans and 370 elephants died as a result of human-elephant conflict between 1980 and 2003.[50]In India alone, over 400 people are killed by elephants every year, and 0.8 to 1 million hectares are damaged, affecting at least 500,000 families across the country.[54] Moreover, elephants are known to destroy crops worth up to US$2–3 million annually.[55] This has major impacts on the welfare and livelihoods of local communities, as well as the future conservation of this species.[52]

Poaching[edit]

18th century ivory powder flask
The demand for ivory as a result of rapid economic development during the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in East Asia, led to rampant poaching and the serious decline of elephants in many Asian and African range countries. In Thailand, the illegal trade in live elephants and ivory still flourishes. Although the quantity of worked ivory seen openly for sale has decreased substantially since 2001, Thailand still has one of the largest and most active ivory industries seen anywhere in the world. Tusks from Thai poached elephants also enter the market; between 1992 and 1997 at least 24 male elephants were killed for their tusks.[56]
Up to the early 1990s, Vietnamese ivory craftsmen used exclusively Asian elephant ivory from Vietnam and neighbouring Lao PDR and Cambodia. Before 1990, there were few tourists and the low demand for worked ivory could be supplied by domestic elephants. Economic liberalization and an increase in tourism raised both local and visitors’ demands for worked ivory, which resulted in heavy poaching.[57]

Handling methods[edit]

Young elephants are captured and illegally imported to Thailand from Myanmar for use in the tourism industry; calves are used mainly in amusement parks and are trained to perform various stunts for tourists.[56]
The calves are often subjected to a 'breaking in' process, which may involve being tied up, confined, starved, beaten and tortured; as a result, two-thirds may perish.[58] Handlers use a technique known as the training crush, in which "handlers use sleep-deprivation, hunger, and thirst to "break" the elephants' spirit and make them submissive to their owners"; moreover, handlers drive nails into the elephants' ears and feet.[59]

Conservation

·            Asian elephants are quintessential flagship species, deployed to catalyze a range of conservation goals, including:
·            habitat conservation at landscape scales[60][61]
·            generating public awareness of conservation issues[52]
·            mobilization as a popular cultural icon both in India and the West[60][61]

Great Indian bustard

Introduction



The Great Indian Bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard is a bustard found in India and the adjoining regions of Pakistan. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs, giving it an ostrich like appearance, this bird is among the heaviest of the flying birds. Once common on the dry plains of the Indian subcontinent, as few as 250 individuals were estimated in 2011 to survive and the species is critically endangered by hunting and loss of its habitat, which consists of large expanses of dry grassland and scrub. These birds are often found associated in the same habitat as blackbuck. It is protected under Wildlife Protection Act 1972 of India.

Status

In 2011 Birdlife International uplisted this species from Endangered to Critically Endangered, mainly because it has been exirpated from 90% of its former range and the population was estimated at perhaps fewer than 250 individuals in 2008. The main threats are hunting and habitat loss. In the past they were heavily hunted for their meat and for sport and, today, poaching of the species may continue. In some places, such as Rajasthan, increased irrigation by the Indira Gandhi canal has led to increased agriculture and the altered habitat has led to the disappearance of the species from these regions. Some populations migrate into Pakistan where hunting pressure is high. The bird is found in Rajasthan, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat states of India. Desert National Park, near Jaisalmer and coastal grasslands of the Abdasa and Mandvi talukas of Kutch District of Gujarat support some populations.Ghatigaon and Karera sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh once held sizeable populations. Other sanctuaries with the species include Naliya in Kutch, Karera Wildlife Sanctuary in Shivpuri district;Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary near Nannaj, 18 km from Solapur in Maharashtra, Shrigonda taluka in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, near Nagpur and near Warora in Chandrapur district in Maharashtra and Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary, 45 km from Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh. At Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary, habitat changes have affected the populations of blackbuck and bustards. In the 1950s the scrub forest was replaced with Eucalyptusplantations. These helped wildlife when the trees were short but after their extensive growth they made the adjoining grassland less favourable for bustards.
A 2011 study of the variability in mitochondrial DNA (hypervariable control region II and cytochrome b) in 63 samples from 5 Indian states found very low genetic diversity suggesting a historical population reduction. The study suggested a population reduction or near extinction estimated about 20-40,000 years ago.[29] Attempts to breed them in captivity in the 1970s failed. The species is considered as "critically endangered" by the IUCN Red data list.


Conservation

The rapid reduction of the population of India's bustards, their endangered status and the decline of grasslands led the Ministry of Environment and Forests to prepare species recovery programs in 2012 for three species of bustard; the great Indian bustard, the Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis) and the lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus). These programs remain to be finalised and executed by the state wildlife departments. The state of Rajasthan initiated "Project Great Indian Bustard", on World Environment Day 2013, identifying and fencing off bustard breeding grounds in existing protected areas as well as provide secure breeding enclosures in areas outside protected areas.[31]
Current threats to the species include the development of linear infrastructure intrusions such as roads and electric power lines in the desert that lead to collision-related mortality.[32]Proposed expansion of renewable energy infrastructure, which may involve deploying solar panels over large areas of desert and grasslands is another threat to the bird's habitat.[33]

Blackbuck

Introduction


The blackbuck (/ˈblækˌbʌk/; Antilope cervicapra), also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India, Nepal and Pakistan. The blackbuck is the sole extant member of the genus Antilope. The species was described and given its binomial name by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Two subspecies are recognized. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm (29 to 33 in) high at the shoulder. Males weigh 20–57 kilograms (44–126 lb), an average of 38 kilograms (84 lb). Females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kilograms (44–73 lb) or 27 kilograms (60 lb) on an average. The long, ringed horns, 35–75 centimetres (14–30 in) long, are generally present only on males, though females may develop horns as well. The white fur on the chin and around the eyes is in sharp contrast with the black stripes on the face. The coat of males shows two-tone colouration: while the upper parts and outsides of the legs are dark brown to black, the underparts and the insides of the legs are all white. On the other hand, females and juveniles are yellowish fawn to tan.
The blackbuck is a diurnal antelope (active mainly during the day). Three kinds of groups, typically small, are the female, male and bachelor herds. Males often adopt lekking as a strategy to garner females for mating. While other males are not allowed into these territories, females often visit these places to forage. The male can thus attempt mating with her. Herbivores, blackbuck graze on low grasses, occasionally browsing as well. Females become sexually mature at eight months, but mate no earlier than two years. Males mature later, at one-and-a-half years. Mating takes place throughout the year. Gestation is typically six months long, after which a single calf is born. The lifespan is typically 10 to 15 years.
The blackbuck inhabits grassy plains and slightly forested areas. Due to their regular need of water, they prefer areas where water is perennially available.
The antelope is native to and found mainly in India, while it is extinct in Bangladesh. Formerly widespread, only small, scattered herds are seen today, largely confined to protected areas. During the 20th century, blackbuck numbers declined sharply due to excessive hunting, deforestation and habitat degradation. The blackbuck has been introduced in Argentina and the United States. In India, hunting of blackbuck is prohibited under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. The blackbuck has significance in Hinduism; Indian and Nepali villagers do not harm the antelope.
Threats
During the 20th century, blackbuck numbers declined sharply due to excessive hunting, deforestation and habitat degradation. Some blackbucks are killed illegally especially where they are sympatric with nilgai. Until India's independence in 1947, blackbuck and chinkara were hunted in many princely states with specially trained captive Asiatic cheetahs.[31]By the 1970s, blackbuck were extinct in several areas.[46] Nevertheless, populations in India have increased from 24,000 in the late 1970s to 50,000 in 2001[citation needed].
The blackbuck is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.


Conservation
The blackbuck is listed under Appendix III of CITES.[19] In India, hunting of blackbuck is prohibited under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.[10][47] It inhabits several protected areas of India, including
·              in Gujarat: Velavadar Wildlife Sanctuary, Gir Forest National Park;[48]
·              in Bihar: Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary;
·              in Maharashtra: Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary;
·              in Rajasthan: Tal Chhapar Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Ranthambhore National Park[49]
·              in Karnataka: Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary;
·              in Tamil Nadu: Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary, Vallanadu Wildlife Sanctuary,[50] Guindy National Park.

Interaction with human beings

The blackbuck has associations with the Indian culture. The antelope might have been a source of food in the Indus Valley civilisation (3300–1700 BCE); bone remains have been discovered in sites such as Dholavira and Mehrgarh. The blackbuck is routinely depicted in miniature paintings of the Mughal era (16th to 19th centuries) depicting royal hunts often using cheetahs.[53][54][55] Villagers in India and Nepal generally do not harm the blackbuck.[56] Tribes such as the Bishnois revere and care for most animals including the blackbuck.[10][57]The blackbuck has been declared as the state animal of Andhra Pradesh.[8]
The animal is mentioned in Sanskrit texts as the krishna mrig.[10] According to Hindu mythology, the blackbuck draws the chariot of Lord Krishna.[56] The blackbuck is considered to be the vehicle of Vayu (the wind god), Soma (the divine drink) and Chandra (the moon god).[10] In Tamil Nadu, the blackbuck is considered to be the vehicle of the Hindu goddess Korravai.[57] In Rajasthan, the goddess Karni Mata is believed to protect the blackbuck.[57]
In the Yājñavalkya Smṛti, Sage Yagyavalkya is quoted stating "in what country there is black antelope, in that Dharma must be known", which is interpreted to mean that certain religious practices including sacrifices were not to be performed where blackbuck did not roam.[58][59]
The hide of the blackbuck (krishnajina in Hindi) is deemed to be sacred in Hinduism. According to the scriptures, it is to be sat upon only by brahmins (priests), sadhus and yogis (sages), forest-dwellers and bhikshus (mendicants).[57][60] Blackbuck meat is highly regarded in Texas.[61] In an analysis, blackbuck milk was found to have 6.9% protein, 9.3% fat, and 4.3% lactose.[62]
In some agricultural areas in northern India, the blackbuck are found in large numbers and raid crop fields.[63] However, the damage caused by blackbuck is far lower than that caused by the nilgai.[64][65]

South Asian river dolphin

Introduction
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is a freshwater or river dolphin found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (1,200-1,800 individuals) (P. g. gangetica) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor).[2]The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal, while the Indus river dolphin is found in the Indus River in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries. From the 1970s until 1998, they were regarded as separate species; however, in 1998, their classification was changed from two separate species to subspecies of a single species (see taxonomy below). The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal.[3]The Indus river dolphin has been named as the National Mammal of Pakistan.[4] Further, the Ganges river dolphin is the official animal of the Indian city of Guwahati.[5]

Conservation

International trade is prohibited by the listing of the South Asian river dolphin on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).[18] It is protected under the Indian Wildlife Act, although these legislations require stricter enforcement.[15]
Both subspecies are listed by the IUCN as endangered on their Red List of Threatened Species. The Indus river dolphin is listed as endangered by the US government National Marine Fisheries Service under the Endangered Species Act. On a positive note, in recent years, the population of blind Indus dolphins in Pakistan has increased.
The immediate danger for the resident population of P. gangeticus in National Chambal Sanctuary is the decrease in river depth and appearance of sand bars dividing the river course into smaller segments. The proposed conservation measures include designated dolphin sanctuaries and the creation of additional habitat.
Ministry of Environment and Forest declared Gangetic dolphin as national aquatic animal of India. Also, a stretch of Ganges river between Sultanganj and Kahlgaon in Bihar has been declared as dolphin sanctuary and named Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS). It is the world's first dolphin sanctuary for the conservation of Gangetic Dolphin P. Gangeticus.
The species is listed on Appendix I and Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). It is listed on Appendix I[21] as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range and CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them. It is listed on Appendix II[21] as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements.
The Uttar Pradesh government in India is bringing up ancient Hindu texts in hopes of raising the community support to save the dolphins from disappearing. One of the lines being versed from Valimiki’s Ramayan, highlighted the force by which the Ganges emerged from Lord Shivji’s locks and along with this force came many species such as animals, fish and the Shishumaar—the dolphin.[22]

Human interaction

Both subspecies have been very adversely affected by human use of the river systems in the subcontinent. Entanglement in fishing nets can cause significant damage to local population numbers. Some individuals are still taken each year and their oil and meat used as a liniment, as an aphrodisiac, and as bait for catfish. Irrigation has lowered water levels throughout both subspecies' ranges. Poisoning of the water supply from industrial and agricultural chemicals may have also contributed to population decline. Perhaps the most significant issue is the building of more than 50 dams along many rivers, causing the segregation of populations and a narrowed gene pool in which dolphins can breed. Currently, three subpopulations of Indus dolphins are considered capable of long-term survival if protected.[23]

Non-human personhood

On 20 May 2013 India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests declared dolphins as ‘non-human persons’ and as such has forbidden their captivity for entertainment purposes.[24] Some scientists postulate that dolphins and whales are sufficiently intelligent to justify the same ethical considerations as humans.[25] As a consequence in order to keep dolphins in captivity one must provide a legally sufficient reason for their captivity.

Siberian crane

Introduction


The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white, except for their black primary feathers that are visible in flight and with two breeding populations in the Arctic tundra of western and eastern Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in India and Nepal. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations. Their populations, particularly those in the western range, have declined drastically in the 20th century due to hunting along their migration routes and habitat degradation. The world population was estimated in 2010 at about 3,200 birds, mostly belonging to the eastern population with about 95% of them wintering in the Poyang Lake basin in China, a habitat that may be altered by the Three Gorges Dam. In western Siberia there are only around ten of these cranes in the wild.


Status and conservation[edit]

The status of this crane is critical and the world population is estimated to be around 3200–4000, nearly all of them belonging to the eastern breeding population. Of the 15 crane species, this is the most threatened. The western population has dwindled to 4 in 2002 and was thought to be extirpated but one 1 individual was seen in Iran in 2010. The wintering site at Poyang in China holds an estimated 98% of the population and is threatened by hydrological changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam and other water development projects.
Historic records from India suggest a wider winter distribution in the past including records from Gujarat, near New Delhi and even as far east as Bihar.[17][30] In 1974 as many as 75 birds wintered in Bharatpur and this declined to a single pair in 1992 and the last bird was seen in 2002. In the 19th century, larger numbers of birds were noted to visit India.[31] They were sought after by hunters and specimen collectors. An individual that escaped from a private menagerie was shot in the Outer Hebrides in 1891.[32] The western population may even have wintered as far west as Egypt along the Nile.[33]
Satellite telemetry was used to track the migration of a flock that wintered in Iran. They were noted to rest on the eastern end of the Volga delta.[34] Satellite telemetry was also used to track the migration of the eastern population in the mid-1990s, leading to the discovery of new resting areas along the species' flyway in eastern Russia and China.[35] The Siberian crane is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies and is subject of the Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane concluded under the Bonn Convention.

Significance in human culture

For Siberian natives – Yakuts and Yukaghirs - the white crane is a sacred bird associated with sun, spring and kind celestial spirits ajyy. In yakut epics Olonkho shamans and shamaness transform into white cranes.

Ganges shark

Introduction

The Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus) is a critically endangered species of requiem shark found in the Ganges River (Padma River) and the Brahmaputra River of Bangladesh and India. It is often confused with the more common bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), which also inhabits the Ganges River and is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Ganges shark.[2] Unlike bull sharks, which need to migrate to salt water to reproduce, species in the genus Glyphis are true river sharks. The genus contains a total of six known species, only half of which are described.[3] In contrast, genetic evidence has shown that both the Borneo river shark (G. fowlerae) and Irrawaddy river shark (G. siamensis) should be regarded as synonyms of the Ganges shark, expanding the range of the species to Pakistan, Myanmar, Borneo and Java.[4] Even with this expanded range, the species remains very poorly known and very rare.[4]

Conservation

G. gangeticus is one of 20 sharks on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List of endangered shark species. The species is currently classified as Critically Endangered. There is an urgent need for a detailed survey of the shark fisheries of the Bay of Bengal.

Major threats

River sharks are thought to be particularly vulnerable to habitat changes. The Ganges shark is restricted to a very narrow band of habitat that is heavily impacted by human activity. Overfishing, habitat degradation from pollution, increasing river use and management, including construction of dams and barrages are the principle threats. Thought to be consumed locally for its meat, the Ganges shark is caught by gillnet and its oil, along with that of the South Asian river dolphin, is highly sought after as a fish attractant.[19] It is also believed to be part of the Asian shark fin trade.[6]

Conservation actions

In 2001, the Indian government banned the landing of all species of chondrichthyan fish in its ports. However, shortly afterwards this ban was amended to cover only 10 species of chondrichthyans. These, including G. gangeticus are protected under Schedule I, Part II A of the Wildlife Protection Act of India.[20] There is doubt about the effectiveness of this measure, however, because of difficulties in enforcement. There is a widespread, albeit widely dispersed, artisanal fishery for both local consumption and international trade. Compagno (1997) recommends an in-depth survey of fishing camps and landing sites, along with a sampling program in the Ganges system to determine the current status of this shark along with other gangetic elasmobranchs such as stingrays and sawfish.

Human interaction

The Ganges shark is widely feared as a ferocious man-eater. But most of the attacks attributed to it are probably the result of confusion with the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.This is likely because bull sharks are known to travel long distances into freshwater systems and may co-exist in the same waters as the Ganges shark. But since little is known about the behaviour of genuine freshwater river sharks, and since G. gangeticus is critically endangered, contact with humans is very rare.
The biological differences between the Ganges shark and bull shark also point to a lower likelihood of attacks on humans by the Ganges shark. G. gangeticus has much narrower, higher, upper teeth and slender-cusped, less heavily built lower teeth than C. leucas. Such small sharp teeth are more suitable for fish-impaling and less useful for dismembering tough mammalian prey than the stout teeth of the bull shark.


Dhole

Introduction


The dhole /dəʊl/ (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia. Other English names for the species include Asiatic wild dog,[3] Indian wild dog,[4] whistling dog, red dog,[5] and mountain wolf.[6] It is genetically close to species within the genusCanis,[7](Fig. 10) though its skull is convex rather than concave in profile, it lacks a third lower molar[8] and the upper molars sport only a single cusp as opposed to two to four.[9] During the Pleistocene, the dhole ranged throughout Asia, Europe and North America but became restricted to its historical range 12,000–18,000 years ago.[10]


The dhole is a highly social animal, living in large clans without rigid dominance hierarchies[11] and containing multiple breeding females.[12]Such clans usually consist of 12 individuals, but groups of over 40 are known.[5] It is a diurnal pack hunter which preferentially targets medium and large sized ungulates.[13] In tropical forests, the dhole competes with tigers and leopards, targeting somewhat different prey species, but still with substantial dietary overlap.[14]
It is listed as Endangered by the IUCN as populations are decreasing and are estimated at fewer than 2,500 adults. Factors contributing to this decline include habitat loss, loss of prey, competition with other species, persecution due to livestock predation and disease transfer from domestic dogs.[2]

Diseases and parasites

Dholes are vulnerable to a number of different diseases, particularly in areas where they are sympatric with other canid species. Infectious pathogens such as Toxocara canis are present in their faeces. They may suffer from rabies, canine distemper, mange, trypanosomiasis, canine parvovirus, and endoparasites such as cestodes and roundworms.[13]

Threats

The dhole only rarely takes domestic livestock. Certain people, such as the Kurumbas and some Mon Khmer-speaking tribes will appropriate dhole kills; some Indian villagers welcome the dhole because of this appropriation of dhole kills.[73] Dholes were persecuted throughout India for bounties until they were given protection by the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. Methods used for dhole hunting included poisoning, snaring, shooting and clubbing at den sites. Native Indian people killed dholes primarily to protect livestock, while British sporthunters during the British Raj did so under the conviction that dholes were responsible for drops in game populations. Persecution of dholes still occurs with varying degrees of intensity according to region.[13] Bounties paid for dholes used to be 25 rupees, though this was reduced to 20 in 1926 after the number of presented dhole carcasses became too numerous to maintain the established reward.[96] In Indochina, dholes suffer heavily from nonselective hunting techniques such as snaring.[13]
The fur trade does not pose a significant threat to dholes.[13] The people of India do not eat dhole flesh, and their fur is not considered overly valuable.[48] Due to their rarity, dholes were never harvested for their skins in large numbers in the Soviet Union, and were sometimes accepted as dog or wolf pelts (being labeled as "half wolf" for the latter). The winter fur was prized by the Chinese, who bought dhole pelts in Ussuriysk during the late 1860s for a few silver rubles. In the early 20th century, dhole pelts reached eight rubles in Manchuria. In Semirechye, fur coats made from dhole skin were considered the warmest, but were very costly.[9]

Conservation

The dhole is protected under Schedule 2 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The creation of reserves under Project Tiger provided some protection for dhole populations sympatric with tigers. In 2014, the Indian government sanctioned its first dhole conservation breeding centre at the Indira Gandhi Zoological Park (IGZP) in Visakhapatnam.[97] The dhole has been protected in Russia since 1974, though it is vulnerable to poison left out for wolves. In China, the animal is listed as a category II protected species under the Chinese wildlife protection act of 1988. In Cambodia, the dhole is protected from all hunting, while conservation laws in Vietnam limit extraction and utilization.[2]
In 2016, the Korean company Sooam Biotech was reported to be attempting to clone the dhole using dogs as surrogate mothers to help conserve the species.[98]

Red panda

Introduction
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. It has reddish-brown fur, a long, shaggy tail, and a waddling gait due to its shorter front legs; it is slightly larger than a domestic cat. It is arboreal, feeds mainly on bamboo, but also eats eggs, birds, and insects. It is a solitary animal, mainly active from dusk to dawn, and is largely sedentary during the day.
The red panda has been classified as Endangered by the IUCN because its wild population is estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals and continues to decline due to habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, and inbreeding depression, although red pandas are protected by national laws in their range countries.
The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus and the family Ailuridae. It has been previously placed in the raccoon and bearfamilies, but the results of phylogenetic analysis provide strong support for its taxonomic classification in its own family, Ailuridae, which is part of the superfamily Musteloidea along with the weasel, raccoon and skunk families.[5] Two subspecies are recognized. It is not closely related to the giant panda, which is a basal ursid

Threats



The primary threats to red pandas are direct harvest from the wild, live or dead, competition with domestic livestock resulting in habitat degradation, and deforestation resulting in habitat loss or fragmentation. The relative importance of these factors is different in each region, and is not well understood. For instance, in India, the biggest threat seems to be habitat loss followed by poaching, while in China, the biggest threat seems to be hunting and poaching. A 40% decrease in red panda populations has been reported in China over the last 50 years, and populations in western Himalayan areas are considered to be lower.
Deforestation can inhibit the spread of red pandas and exacerbate the natural population subdivision by topography and ecology, leading to severe fragmentation of the remaining wild population. Fewer than 40 animals in four separate groups share resources with humans in Nepal's Langtang National Park, where only 6% of 1,710 km2 (660 sq mi) is preferred red panda habitat. Although direct competition for food with domestic livestock is not significant, livestock can depress bamboo growth by trampling.
Small groups of animals with little opportunity for exchange between them face the risk of inbreeding, decreased genetic diversity, and even extinction. In addition, clear-cutting for firewood or agriculture, including hillside terracing, removes old trees that provide maternal dens and decreases the ability of some species of bamboo to regenerate.
In south-west China, red pandas are hunted for their fur, especially for the highly valued bushy tails, from which hats are produced. In these areas, the fur is often used for local cultural ceremonies. In weddings, the bridegroom traditionally carries the hide. The "good-luck charm" red panda-tail hats are also used by local newly-weds. This practice may be quite old, as the red panda seems to be depicted in a 13th-century Chinese pen-and-ink scroll showing a hunting scene. Little or no mention of the red panda is made in the culture and folklore of Nepal.
In the past, red pandas were captured and sold to zoos. Angela Glatston reported she had personally handled 350 red pandas in 17 years.
Due to CITES, this zoo harvest has decreased substantially in recent years, but poaching continues, and red pandas are often sold to private collectors at exorbitant prices. In some parts of Nepal and India, red pandas are kept as pets.
The red panda has a naturally low birth rate (usually one single or twin birth per year), and a high death rate in the wild.

Conservation

Closeup of red panda
The red panda is listed in CITES Appendix I.[29] The species has been classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List since 2008 because the global population is estimated at about 10,000 individuals, with a decreasing population trend; only about half of the total area of potential habitat of 142,000 km2 (55,000 sq mi) is actually being used by the species. Due to their shy and secretive nature, and their largely nocturnal habits, observation of red pandas is difficult. Therefore, population figures in the wild are determined by population density estimates and not direct counts.
Worldwide population estimates range from fewer than 2,500[24] to between 16,000 and 20,000 individuals.[12] In 1999, the total population in China was estimated at between 3,000 and 7,000 individuals.[18] In 2001, the wild population in India was estimated at between 5,000 and 6,000 individuals.[12] Estimates for Nepal indicate only a few hundred individuals.[30] No records from Bhutan or Burma exist.
Reliable population numbers are hard to find, partly because other animals have been mistaken for the red panda. For instance, one report from Burma stated that red pandas were still fairly common in some areas, and was accompanied by a photograph of a "red panda" as proof. The photograph in question depicted a species of civet.[31]
The red panda is protected in all range countries, and hunting is illegal. Beyond this, conservation efforts are highly variable between countries:
·              China has 35 protected areas covering about 42.4% of red panda habitat.
·              India has 20 protected areas with known or possible red panda populations in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal such as Khangchendzonga National Park, Namdapha National Park, and Singalila National Park, and a coordinated conservation policy for the red panda.·            


 In Nepal, known populations occur in Langtang National Park, Sagarmatha National Park, Makalu Barun National Park, Rara National Park, Annapurna Conservation Area, Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, and in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve.[32]
·              Bhutan has five protected areas that support red panda populations.
·              Burma has 26 protected areas, of which at least one hosts red panda populations.

In situ initiatives

A community-managed forest in Ilam District of eastern Nepal is home to 15 red pandas which generate household income through tourism activities, including home stays. Villagers in the high-altitude areas of Arunachal Pradesh have formed the Pangchen Red Panda Conservation Alliance comprising five villages with a community-conserved forest area of 200 km2 (77 sq mi) at an altitude of 2,500 m (8,200 ft) to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft).

In captivity

Red panda at Prospect Park Zoo, New York, US
The red panda is quite adaptable to living in captivity, and is common in zoos worldwide. By 1992, more than 300 births had occurred in captivity, and more than 300 individuals lived in 85 institutions worldwide. By 2001, 182 individuals were in North American zoos alone. As of 2006, the international studbook listed more than 800 individuals in zoos and parks around the world. Of these, 511 individuals of subspecies A. f. fulgens were kept in 173 institutions and 306 individuals of subspecies A. f. styani were kept in 81 institutions.
The international studbook is currently managed at the Rotterdam Zoo in the Netherlands. In cooperation with the International Red Panda Management Group, they coordinate the Species Survival Plan in North America, the European Endangered Species Programme in Europe, and other captive-breeding programs in Australia, India, Japan, and China. In 2009, Sarah Glass, curator of red pandas and special exhibits at the Knoxville Zoo in Knoxville, Tennessee, was appointed as coordinator for the North American Red Panda Species Survival Plan. The Knoxville Zoo has the largest number of captive red panda births in the Western Hemisphere (101 as of August 2011). Only the Rotterdam Zoo has had more captive births worldwide.
The Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park in Darjeeling, India, successfully released four captive-bred red pandas to the wild in August and November 2003.
Three red panda cubs were born in captivity at Hamilton Zoo in New Zealand in December 2012, doubling the number held there.

Indian wild ass

Introduction
The Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) also called the Ghudkhur, Khur or Indian onager in the local Gujarati language, is a subspecies of the onager native to Southern Asia. As of 2016, it is listed as Near Threatened by IUCN.
A the previous census in 2009, estimated 4,038 Indian wild ass. However, the population was still growing. In December 2014, the population was estimated at 4,451 individuals. It has increased from a jump of 454.[3] However, as of 2015, the current Indian wild ass population has increased to more than 4,800 individuals in and outside of the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary of India.[4]

Threats

It is unknown how the Indian wild ass disappeared from its former haunts in parts of western India and Pakistan, since the animal was never a hunting target of Indian Maharajas and colonial British officials of the British Raj. However, India's Mughal Emperors and noblemen from the time took great pleasure in hunting it with Emperor Jahangir in his book Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.[5] In an illustrated copy that has survived of Akbarnama, the book of Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great there is an illustration of Akbar on an Indian wild ass shoot with several of them having been shot by him.[6]
From 1958-1960, the wild ass became a victim of a disease known as surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi and transmitted by flies, which caused a dramatic decline of its population in India. In November and December 1961, the wild ass population was reduced to just 870 after to the outbreak of South African Horse Sickness.
Besides disease, the ass's other threats include habitat degradation due to salt activities, the invasion of the Prosopis juliflora shrub, and encroachment and grazing by the Maldhari. Conservation efforts since 1969 have helped boost the animal's population to 4000.[7]

Conservation[edit]

A captive Indian wild ass at Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Tamil Nadu.
In the last century, the Indian wild ass lived all over the dry regions of northwestern India and western Pakistan including Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Sind and Baluchistan. Today, it survives only in the Little Rann, and a few stray towards the Great Rann of Kutch with some reaching bordering villages in the Jalore district of the Indian State of Rajasthan.[5]
First census of the wild ass was done in 1940, when there were an estimated 3,500 wild asses. But, by the year 1960, this figure fell to just 362, it was then classified as a highly endangered species. In the years 1973 & 1976, Rann of Kutch and adjoining districts were taken up as the area for conservation for this sub-species also known as Khur. From 1976, the forest department began conducting the wild ass census. Water holes were increased in the area, the forest department has also started a project for having fodder plots though the forest department is yet to get desired success. In 1998, the wild ass population was estimated at 2,940, by the year 2004 it has increased to an estimated 3,863. A recent census conducted by forest department in 2009 has revealed that the population of wild ass in the state was estimated to about 4,038, an increase of 4.53% as compared to 2004. Recently in 2015, the current census of the Indian wild ass population has increased to more than 4,800 individuals in and outside of the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary of India.
Of late, it has been spotted right outside Ahmedabad near Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. It seems it is no more confined to the 4,953.71 km2 area of the Rann, but it is now being found right up to the Kala Dungar near Banni grasslands in Kutch and Nal Sarovar. Within the State of Gujarat it is now also found in districts of Surendranagar, Rajkot, Patan, Banaskantha and Kutch. This population of wild asses is the only gene pool of Indian wild asses in the entire world and one of the six geographical varieties or sub-species surviving on the planet.

Reintroduction plans[edit]

The population has been growing since 1976 but the wild ass experts warn, long-term trends show intense fluctuations. This area in Kutch, Gujarat is drought-prone due to erratic monsoons, the wild ass population could decline suddenly as a result of a massive die-off. It is only if there are no severe droughts, the species is likely to grow and disperse in the Great Rann and adjoining Rajasthan, habitats that the wild ass occupied in the recent past.
The Gujarat Ecological Education and Research Foundation (GEER) report has recommended that the Thar desert in Rajasthan should be developed as an alternative site for re-establishing the Indian wild ass by reintroduction a few of them there.


CONCULSION :

From this project I came to know that many species were being endangered or extinct because of some human interaction or some climatic changes .But it’s our responsibility to take care of the species for the next generation .We people should not cause any harm to them for fulfilling our wish .So I hope with the help of this project you can come to know the endangered species and its importance in India.  So please protect animals and birds.
THANK YOU