Rampur : A Village Economy Class 10th Social Studies AP Board Solution

Class 10th Social Studies AP Board Solution

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Question 1.

Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census, and the details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Rampur.

a. Location:

b. The total area of the Village:

c. Land use (in hectares):



Answer:

a. Location: Western part of Uttar Pradesh


b. The total area of the Village: 246-hectare


c. Land use (in hectares):




Question 2.

Why are the wages for farm laborers in Rampur less than minimum wages?


Answer:

Small farmers along with their families mostly cultivate their own fields. Generally, they provide the labour required for farming themselves. Medium and large farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields. There is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Rampur, so people agree to work for lower wages. With large farmers increasingly relying on machines like tractors, threshers, harvesters, the number of days of work available to a worker is very low in rural areas. Hence their wages are lower than minimum wages.



Question 3.

Talk to two laborers from your region. Choose either farm laborers or laborers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind?

Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?


Answer:

Farm Labourers: Labourers are the people who work for the landlords. They work on the field allotted on daily wages it depends from region to region. Sometimes they are paid in cash or get daily meals too. They do not have the right over the crops grown on the land. Farming requires a great deal of hard work which is done by these laborers.


Laborers working at construction sites: They are hired on a daily basis and are paid in cash for their everyday working hours.



Question 4.

What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.


Answer:

The different ways of increasing production of the same land are:

1. All land must be cultivated, and none of the lands should be left idle.


2. Growing jowar and bajra during the rainy season, which could be used to feed cattle.


3. Potatoes could be cultivated during the month of October and December, which they could sell or use it for their own consumption.


4. Then in winter wheat could be grown, which could be used for consumption and sell the surplus wheat.


5. Sugarcane could be harvested once in a year, which could be sold raw to the traders.



Question 5.

How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?


Answer:

The medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming and are able to arrange the capital needed. They put most of their money in banks and uses savings for lending money to small farmers at high-interest rates.

The small farmers borrow money for their capital from large farmers or the village moneylenders. They charge heavy interest rates and these small farmers are put into great distress when they are unable to repay the loan back.



Question 6.

On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal? Would Savita's condition be different if he could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?


Answer:

Savita is a small farmer who plans to cultivate wheat on her land, for this she needs seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, farm instruments. She needs cash to purchase the above, so she asked Tejpal Singh a large farmer for some money as a loan. He agrees to give her loan on a condition that she would pay 24% interest rate for four months and work as a laborer during harvest season at Rs35 per day.

If she would have approached the bank, then she would have got a loan at the lower interest rate, and she would not be bound with any condition of working on others field.



Question 7.

Talk to some elderly persons in your region and write a small report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years.


Answer:

1. Till the 1960s the farmers used traditional seeds that had the low yielding capacity and required less irrigation.


2. Cow dung and natural manures were used as fertilizers. They did not have to invest a lot of money in farming.


3. In late 1960s government introduced The Green Revolution for the Indian farmers.


4. They were provided high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds of wheat and rice.


5. These seeds had high yield, required plenty of water and chemical fertilizers.


6. The farmers had to set up deep tube wells for irrigation.


7. They started using machines like tractors and threshers that made farming easy and faster.



Question 8.

What are the main non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Write a brief report on anyone such activity.


Answer:

Nonfarm production means the products that are not derived from agricultural raw materials.

Some nonfarm productions are:


1. Dairy


2. Pottery


3. Iron and Steel Production.



Question 9.

Imagine a situation where labor is the scarce factor of production instead of land. Would story of Rampur be different? How? Discuss in class.


Answer:

Labourers are the people who work for the landlords. They work on the field allotted on daily wages it depends from region to region. Sometimes they are paid in cash or get daily meals too. They do not have the right over the crops grown on the land. Farming requires a great deal of hard work which is done by these laborers.

Hence without them such a huge amount of production of crops is impossible.


If laborers are available in scarce quantity, the crop producers either have to invest a huge capital to set up machines for the production or get laborers transported from different regions.


In Rampur, the laborers have huge competition for work. So people agree to work even for low wages.



Question 10.

Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in North Bihar. Out of a total of 850 households in the two villages, there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common in most villages across India. Why do people migrate? Can you describe (based on your imagination and previous chapter) the work that the migrants of Gosaipurauli might do at the place of destination?


Answer:

In villages, there is huge competition for work among the laborers. They are ready to work even at low wages in the fields. This keeps their income at a low level.

These laborers migrate to cities and towns in search of work. In cities, laborers are in great demand due to industries and construction. The laborers are given daily wages or even are provided with the one-time meal.


This attracts the laborers, and they migrate.



Question 11.

The land is also required for the production of goods in an urban area. In what ways is the use of land different from a rural area?


Answer:

In rural areas, The forests are cleared in order to make it a plain and make use of it for cultivation. The farmers purchase the land or inherit it from their ancestors, or the landlords make the farmers work as a tenant on their land.

Whereas in Urban areas the forests are cleared in order to build buildings and industries etc.



Question 12.

Read again the meaning of “land” in the production process. Give three examples, other than agriculture, where this requirement is most significant in the process of production.


Answer:

Land is an important factor for farm production.

The forests are cleared in order to make it a plain and make use of it for cultivation. The farmers purchase the land or inherit it from their ancestors, or the landlords make the farmers work as a tenant on their land.


The intensive use of natural resources like water and land might have increased production but have decreased the quantity of these natural resources.


1. The land is not only used for the agricultural process, but it is also used as setting up of the production unit, to derive products from raw crops.


2. The land is used as a market yard, i.e. for buying and selling purposes.



Question 13.

Water, a natural resource for production, particularly agricultural production, now requires greater capital for its use. Can you explain the statement?


Answer:

Water is required for agriculture and in the absence of an adequate amount of water the production level of crops decreases.

Intensive use of water has increased production but has reduced the level of water table. Even the regions have frequent rainfall which recharges the water table has reached a low level.


As a result, the farmers have to dig deeper tubewell for irrigation. High level of irrigation requires electricity. These have increased the consumption of electricity.


To have a well-developed irrigation system requires huge capital.


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