Civil Disobedience Movement Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Civil Disobedience Movement

Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Exercise
  1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options. (Mahatma Gandhi,…
  2. Chandrasingh Thakur was court-martialled and severely punished. Explain the following…
  3. The Government declared Martial Law at Solapur. Explain the following statements with…
  4. The deliberations in the First Round Table Conference proved to be meaningless. Explain…
  5. Gandhiji began fast unto death in the Yerwada jail. Explain the following statements with…
  6. Why did Gandhiji decide to break the Salt Act to begin the satyagraha all over the…
  7. Why did the Indian National Congress withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement? Answer the…
  8. Complete the following timeline of the Civil Disobedience Movement.…
Project
  1. Gather additional information along with photographs about the work of following…
  2. The plot on an outline map of India, the places mentioned in the chapter where the Civil…

Exercise

Question 1.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

(Mahatma Gandhi, Khuda-i-Khidmatgar, Ramsay Mac Donald, Sarojini Naidu)

(1) _______ organized the Round Table Conference in London.

(2) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan established the organization named _________.

(3) _______ led the Dharasana Satyagraha.

(4) In the Second Round Table Conference _______ participated as a representative of the Indian National Congress.


Answer:

1. Ramsay Mac Donald organized the Round Table Conference in London.


It was a series of a conference between British and Indian to discuss the constitutional reforms in India. It was on the recommendation of Simon and Commission and Ramsay Macdonald, the British Prime Minister. It started from November 1930 to December 1932.


2. Khan Abdul Gafar Khan established the organization named Khuda-i-Khidmatgar.


It was a Pashtun nonviolent movement against the British. It was originally initiated as a social reform for the progress of education and removal of a blood feud. This was also called ‘Red Shirts’. However, it became more political as most of its members became targets of the British.


3. Mahatma Gandhi led the Dharasana Satyagraha.


It was a protest against the tax imposed by the British on the salt. This was started after the successful completion of Dandi March. This was a nonviolent raid on the Dharasana salt work in Gujarat. Many of them were beaten and were taken to jail. Yet, the movement continued under the leadership of Sarojini Naidu and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad.


4. In the Second Round Table Conference, Sarojini Naidu participated as a representative of Indian National Congress.


The Gandhi Irwin pact had opened up a way for participation of Congress. Sarojini Naidu had attended it along with Mahatma Gandhi, Sir Syed Ali Kalam, Madan Mohan Malaviya and many others. It was held from September 1931 to December 1931.



Question 2.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Chandrasingh Thakur was court-martialled and severely punished.


Answer:

Gandhiji has protested against the salt law of Britishers. He had formed a satyagraha movement for the same. Many of the peaceful protestors were beaten and jailed by the Britishers. This led to many other movements as well. One such movement was Khuda-i-Khidmatgar by Khan Abdul Gafar Khan. It was a Pashtun nonviolent movement against the British. It was originally initiated as a social reform for the progress of education and removal of a blood feud. This was also called ‘Red Shirts’. However, it became more political as most of its members became targets of the British. Gaffar Khan was arrested, and demonstration began in Peshawar for his freedom.


To solve this issue, the Royal Garhwal Rifles were asked to board the buses that would take them to Peshawar where they were ordered to open fire on the protestors and cause a riot. Chandrasingh Thakur was the commander of this army. He refused to do so and was court-martialed and severely punished.



Question 3.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

The Government declared Martial Law at Solapur.


Answer:

Martial law means the imposition of direct military control over the normal residents of an area in response to a major emergency situation like war or a disaster.


Gandhiji was involved in a peaceful, nonviolent civil Salt March to oppose the British imposition of tax on salt. However, he was arrested under the regulation of 1827, at Karadi near Dandi. This led to a severe outburst of people and the introduction of many new movements. Britishers became brutal to hurt the Indians. Women and children were also not spared. Mob violence took place in the district of Solapur, and the Britishers declared Martial law. Other factors which led to a mass fury were the communal tensions in Peshawar, atrocities of Solapur.



Question 4.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

The deliberations in the First Round Table Conference proved to be meaningless.


Answer:

The first Roundtable conference was from 12 November 1932 19 January 1931. Before this, Gandhiji had already started the civil disobedience movement on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Consequently, the Congress leaders were in jail and were not able to participate in the first conference. However, the representatives of all other Indian parties, as well as a number of Princes, did attend this conference. However, the outcome in the first Roundtable conference proved to be meaningless. It was proposed that India would develop into a federation, defence system would be improved, and the finance was also agreed. However, little efforts were made to implement these recommendations. Civil disobedience movement continued in India. The British government then realized that the Indian National Congress needed to be a part of this conference to decide the future of constitutional government in India.



Question 5.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Gandhiji began fast unto death in the Yerwada jail.


Answer:

On 16 September 1932, Gandhiji began a fast to protest the British support of a new Indian Constitution that would separate the Indian electoral system on the basis of caste. This meant the untouchables or as Gandhiji called them Harijan meaning Children of God would be separated. It implied an unfair system of division of social classes. Gandhiji said that this is a god given opportunity that has come to him to offer his life as a final sacrifice to the downtrodden. Other public figures in India had questioned Gandhiji's commitment to the lower classes, his fast ended after the British government accepted the principal terms of the settlement between higher caste Indians and the untouchables that reversed this decision of separation. He continued his nonviolent and peaceful methods of protest even after this. On January 12, 1948, was his last successful fast in New Delhi to persuade Hindus and Muslims to work towards peace, But less than 15 days later, he was assassinated on his way to an evening prayer meeting.



Question 6.

Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words.

Why did Gandhiji decide to break the Salt Act to begin the satyagraha all over the country?


Answer:

In 1882 the British announced the Salt Act. This act gave the British monopoly on the collection and manufacture of salt. They also levied a taxation system on the use of salt. Violation of this act was a big offence. Even though salt was freely available to the people who were living near the coast, they had to buy it from the Britishers. Different leaders thought different movements to protest against this. Gandhiji had a different opinion that salt must be used as a choice of protest because this is used by all classes among the citizens. Salt tax consisted of 8.2% the British tax revenue. Gandhiji also felt that this would unite the different religions in the country as they all would be fighting for a common, As the protest began the people began to realize the importance of salt as a symbol.
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Question 7.

Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words.

Why did the Indian National Congress withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement?


Answer:

The civil disobedience movement in India began in 1930 and lasted till 1934. This is an important milestone in the history of India. Through this movement, the Indians learned the importance of nonviolence and passive resistance to fight their battles.


1. Many programmes and policies were adopted in due course headed by Gandhiji and other important leaders, The political ideology of ahimsa and Satyagraha also developed during this time, One of the main factors that led to the formation of this movement was Simon Commission.


2. The first movement began from Sabarmati in the form of a Dandi March salt law imposed by the British government.


3. Next, the civil disobedience movement was temporarily discontinued after the Gandhi Irwin pact of 1931 where it was decided that the Indian National Congress would participate in the Roundtable Conference along with the British government.


4. However, in 1932, this movement was restarted as the British government was not prepared to relent. The British police gave the power to arrest anyone even on the basis of suspicion.


5. Many leaders with arrested along with the congressmen. This time the movement continued for 6 months although it was not as organized as the First phase. In 1933 Gandhiji protested against the declaration of untouchables as a minority and began a fast unto death in Yerwada jail. This was also due to the decision of a separate electoral system based on caste.


6. Eventually, Britishers gave in and revoked this decision.


Finally, the National Congress withdrew from the movement, and it was put to an end because mass movements could not long forever, they were out of resources, and the people were tired and exhausted as well.



Question 8.

Complete the following timeline of the Civil Disobedience Movement.



Answer:

12 March 1930: Beginning of Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram


6 April 1930: End of Salt March at Dandi


23 April 1930: Arrest of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan leader of the Khuda I Khidmatgar movement.


4 May 1930: Gandhiji was arrested under the regulation of 1827, at Karadi near Dandi.


6 May 1930: A severe outburst of people regarding arrest of Gandhiji, killing 20 people




Project

Question 1.

Gather additional information along with photographs about the work of following personalities in the Civil Disobedience Movement and exhibit it in the class. (a) Sarojini Naidu (b) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan (c) Babu Genu Said.


Answer:

SAROJINI NAIDU



Sarojini Naidu was an Indian poet and Independence activist. She was born in a Bengali family at Hyderabad. Then moved to Chennai, London, and Cambridge for her education. She took part in the national movement and became a follower of Gandhiji and fought with him for the attainment of Swaraj. She also became the President of the Indian National Congress and was later appointed as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh. When the Dandi March began from the Sabarmati Ashram, many satyagrahis along with Sarojini Naidu had joined Gandhiji. For the first time, the civil disobedience movement became a mass movement including women for gaining freedom. She had encouraged many women to become an important part of the freedom movement. Sarojini Naidu was also the first woman who was arrested during the salt march. She also took part in the Dharasana Satyagraha. She pushed the women followers in Bombay to picket liquor shops and foreign clothes. Although many of the leaders were arrested, the movement continued under the leadership of Sarojini Naidu. She said ' You must not use any violence under any circumstances. You will be beaten, but you must not resist: you must not even raise a hand to ward off blows'. She also collaborated with Annie Besant in 1917 and founded the women's India Association to look into the matches of women's suffrage. She also led the delegation to meet the then Secretary of the state for the recognition of women's suffrage. In 1918 she encouraged the passing of a resolution to support women in a special congress session in Bombay All over her life she had travelled extensively over India to educate women about their rights. On September 1931 she was among the women who met in Bombay and drafted a memorandum stating equal rights for men and women - immediate acceptance of adult franchise without any sex distinction. India became one of the first countries to have equal rights for men and women. She was called the Nightingale of India because she called out the patriarchy of the society when the country did not understand the word freedom.


KHAN ABDUL GAFFAR KHAN



Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was a Pashtun Independence activist who worked for the freedom of the country. He was a political leader with a nonviolent method. He was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and work extensively with him in the struggle for freedom. His main aim was to form a United and secular India. He founded the Khudai khidmatgar or Servant of God. This organisation formed over 1 lakh members and became a very important force of opposition for the British army. Through strikes, protest, and peaceful marches, they were able to achieve some success and became dominant in the field of politics. He had also participated in the Salt Satyagraha with Gandhiji, but in the year 1930, he was arrested during the protest arisen out of the same.
He was a close partner of the Indian National Congress as well as other visible leaders. He was a respected member, but at times he used to disagree with Gandhiji and his policy. For instance, in 1931 when the Congress offered him the presidency of the party, he refused by saying that he is just a simple soldier who wants to serve. He was a major member of the party for many years but resigned in 1939 because of his differences with the party's war policy. He joined Congress again when the World Policy was revised. He had also worked extensively for the rights of the women in the society for the same. He strongly opposed the partition of the country but was accused as an anti-Muslim by some politicians and was physically assaulted in 1946.


BABU GENU SAID



Babu Genu said was an Indian freedom fighter and a revolutionary. He was a worker in one of the cotton mills in Mumbai but later became an active participant in the project and organized many activities for the same. On December 12, 1930, a cloth merchant from Manchester was moving foreign-made cloth from his shop to the Mumbai port. He had police protection as well. The freedom fighters begged not to move that truck but the police forced them aside and managed to get the truck moving. On Kalbadevi Road, Babu Genu stood in front of the truck and shouted praises for Gandhiji. The police officer ordered the driver to drive the truck over him. He was an Indian and said that both of them are Indians so how can he murder his brother? The police sat on the driver's seat and drove the truck over him and crushed him to death. This caused strikes and protests all over Mumbai.
Although he was not a formally educated person he understood the link between politics and economics. Economics is the driving force of British rule and wanted to fight against it.



Question 2.

The plot on an outline map of India, the places mentioned in the chapter where the Civil Disobedience Movement took place.


Answer:

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