Answer in detail: Explain the basic concepts of macro economics. - Economics

QUESTION

Answer in detail:

Explain the basic concepts of macro economics.

Answer in Brief

SOLUTION

According to Kenneth Bounding, "Macro economics deals not with individual quantities as such, but with the aggregate of these quantities, not with the individual income but with the national income not with individual prices but with the price level, not with individual output but with the national output".

The basic concepts of macroeconomics are as follows:

(1) National Income: National Income is the aggregate monetary value of all final goods & services produced in the economy in a year.

(2) Aggregate Saving: Saving is a part of income which is kept aside to satisfy future needs. Aggregate saving is the aggregate monetary value of total savings in an economy.

(3) Aggregate Investment: Investment refers to the mobilization of savings and the creation of capital assets such as furniture, machinery, building, etc. Aggregate investment is the aggregate monetary value of total investments in an economy.

(4) Trade cycle: Trade cycles are the fluctuations in business. They are ups and downs in the overall economic activity.
These fluctuations are caused by (a) inflation (b) deflation/depression.

(a) Inflation: Inflation refers to a general rise in the price of overall goods and services.

(b) Deflation: Deflation refers to a fall in the price of overall goods and services.

(5) Economic growth: Economic growth implies an increase in the real national income, over a long period of time. It is a quantitative concept.

(6) Economic development: Economic development indicates economic growth plus progressive changes. It has a qualitative dimension as it is related to the overall well-being of people.

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