Chapter 6: India and the World Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board

Chapter 6: India and the World


Choose the correct option.


The core of nonalignment was

Independent understanding of world affairs

Participation in cold war

Democratic socialism as policy

Policy of regionalism


Farakka Agreement about sharing of river waters is between India and

Bangladesh

Pakistan

China

Nepal


Identify the incorrect pair in the set. Correct it and rewrite it.

Options

NATO - Europe

ANZUS - Africa

SEATO - South East Asia

CENTO - West Asia


Solution: 


(b) ANZUS - Australia, New Zealand, USA


State whether the following statement is true or false with reason.


Myanmar has been a traditional friend of India.

Options

True

False


Solution: 


This statement is True.


(i) India and Myanmar (formerly Burma) have long historical and cultural relations. In fact, Burma a part of British India from 1824 to 1937.


(ii) India established diplomatic relations after Myanmar's independence in 1948. However, Indo Myanmar ties got strained since India supported pro-democracy movements in Myanmar against the ruling military Junta. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC and cooperate to counteract drug trafficking and insurgent groups like Arakan Army operating in the border areas.


In the changing world order of the 1990s, the issue of terrorism has been dominant.

Options

True

False


Solution: 


This statement is True.


(i) Terrorism refers to the use of or the threat to use violence with the intention to destabilise the political system, cause economic harm and panic in society towards the attainment of some religious or ideological goals.


(ii) Post the 1900s, terrorism has become a global phenomenon with forms like cross-border terrorism, international terrorism, etc., causing widespread destruction e.g., the 2001 attack in the USA by Al-Qaeda, attacks in Bali, Kabul, Mumbai, Madrid, etc. Each Country in the world is involved in trying to secure its territory and deal with terrorism e.g., US-led 'War on Terror'.


The Sagarmala project is a more comprehensive road connectivity plan.

Options

True

False


Solution: 


This statement is False.


(i) India has sought to harness it's 14,500 km of potentially navigable waterways and strategic location on key international maritime trade routes through two compatible programmes viz. Sagarmala and Bharatmala.


(ii) Sagarmala programme aims to promote port and river transport systems and Bharatmala programme is a comprehensive road connectivity plan.


Express your opinion.

 

India’s role in the Indian Ocean.


Solution: 


The Indian Ocean is one of the most busy and critical maritime transportation links in the world. The economies of littoral countries depend heavily on ports, shipping, and vast natural resources. India's vast coastline of about 7500 km presents both opportunity and challenge to India in terms of security and foreign perspectives. India's exclusive economic zone is 2.4 million sq. km. 90% of our trade by volume and almost all oil imports come through the sea. India is a co-founder of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation in 1997 (IORA). The main objective of IORA is to promote sustained, balanced development of the Indian Ocean region. India has initiated the Sagarmala and Bharatmala programmes to harness India's coastline.


Answer the following.


Write a note on India’s relations with Africa.

Solution: 


In the first few decades after independence, India supported the fight against apartheid and provided financial and material aid to liberation struggles in Africa for eg., the AFRICA Fund created at the NAM Summit (Harare).

There are several issues in the context of India-African relations

(i) The India-Africa summit was held in 2015

(ii) About 24 percent of Indian crude oil imports are sourced from the African continent e.g., ONGC Videsh has invested in Sudan and Egypt

(iii) About two million people in Eastern and Southern Africa constitute the India diaspora which is considered as an asset by the Indian government

(iv)Indian industries are interested in offering technological and material services to developing African nations

(v) India continues to be one of the military training destination e.g., National Defence Academy, Pune has the 'Sudan Block' as a symbol of cooperation between India and Sudan

(vi) Countries from Somalia to South Africa fall under the India maritime strategic perspective. Hence, cases of terrorism and piracy in Somalian waters have made this region sensitive to Indian concerns.


Discuss briefly India-China relations.

Solution: 


The relations with China experience friendly gestures from India as India signed the popular ‘Panchsheel’ to develop Indo-China relations in 1954 and advocated China’s membership to the United Nations. Still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations:


1. In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute of MacMohan Line resulted in an unwarranted claims by China which now lie in the Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.


2. Differences arose from the Chinese take over of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.


3. After Panchsheel, attack by China on India in 1962, to occupy larger territories of India, created humiliation.


4. China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear program also created differences.


5. China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interests.


All the above-mentioned differences/ disputes could be resolved for greater cooperation-


1. Both the countries should make some more efforts to revive a harmonious attitude between themselves.


2. Both the countries should move hand-in-hand to fight against terrorism, nuclear race, and economic disparities.


3. Both the countries should develop understanding and respect.


4. Hence, both of them have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology.


Answer the following question in detail with help of the given points.

 

Explain the factors influencing Indian foreign policy.

(a) Geography

(b) History

(c) International System Economy

(d) Polity


Solution: 


Factors Influencing India's Foreign Policy

(a) Geography - The extensive coastline of the India peninsula and the Himalayan mountain ranges have shaped India's security and foreign policy. India shares a border with all neighbouring countries of South Asia. It also holds a dominant position in the India Ocean.

 

(b) History - It includes the influence of traditional cultural values, cultural ties as well as values like anti-colonialism which were imbibed during the freedom struggle.

 

(c) Economy - The strong urge to come out of the poverty and economic backwardness created by the colonial period as well as the policy of Non-Alignment shaped India's foreign policy.

India followed democratic socialism through the policy of import-substitution and importance to the public sector Post-1991, after adopting the policy of Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation many changes have occurred in the Indian foreign policy.

(d) Polity - Political leadership has a significant impact on India's foreign policy for e.g. Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpaye  have played a decisive role in determining India's foreign policy. The Ministry of External Affairs and National Security Advisor plays an important role in formulating foreign policy.

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