Chapter 1: The World since 1991 Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board.

Chapter 1: The World since 1991


Choose the correct option.


One of the important trends in the post-1989 international relations was

End of bipolarity

Rise of regionalism in Asia

End of non-alignment

Demand for a new international economic order


The ‘Maastricht’ Treaty is with reference to -

United Nations Peace Keeping Force

European Union

American interventions in Kuwait

Creation of BRICS


State the appropriate concept for the given statement.


When a state influences other states without the use of military force.

Solution:


When a state influences other states without the use of military force. - Soft power.


A state with a leading position in international politics with abilities to influence global politics and fulfill its own interest.

Solution:


A state with a leading position in international politics with abilities to influence global politics and fulfill its own interest. - Superpower.


Compete the concept map.

Chapter 1: The World since 1991 Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board.







Solution:

Chapter 1: The World since 1991 Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board.

Compete the concept map.

Chapter 1: The World since 1991 Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board.


Solution:

Chapter 1: The World since 1991 Balbharati Solutions for Political Science 12th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board.


Observe the map in the textbook and answer the following question.


Name any four countries in the Schengen area.

Solution:


Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, France.


Name any two non-European Union countries within the Schengen area

Solution:


Norway, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia.


State whether the following statement is true or false with reason.


SAARC is important for trade in South Asia.

Options

True

False


Solution:


This statement is True.

(i) SAARC has eight member States from South Asia. It aims to accelerate economic growth and promote the welfare of the people of South Asia.


(ii) In 1993, the South Asian Association for Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA) came into existence. It was replaced in 2006 by the South Asian Association Free Trade Area (SAFTA).


This helps in trade and economic activity in the region.


‘Maastricht’ Treaty was signed for the defense of Europe.

Options

True

False


Solution:


This statement is False.

(i) On 7th February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union.

(ii) This treaty led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation in internal affairs, foreign policies and defence policies.



The decade of the 1980s is seen as the golden age of humanitarian intervention.

Options

True

False


Solution:


This statement is False.

(i) The 1990s are seen as the 'golden age of humanitarian intervention.' In 1993, the World Conference on Human Rights was held in Vienna, which led to the creation of the office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.


(ii) Increasing awareness about human rights and their protection in international law gave rise to the phenomenon for protection of rights in the form of 'humanitarian intervention'.


Express your opinion.


Humanitarian intervention

Solution:


One of the main purposes of the UN in the maintenance of international peace, security, and cooperation. UN Peacekeeping Force comprises of military personnel and resources sent by member States.


In the post-cold war era, the UN rationale for intervention was not just to stop ongoing wars but also to prevent the reoccurrence of conflicts and protect the human rights of the affected people.


The UN intervened in Cambodia, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Eritrea, Syria, etc., for this purpose. In 1993, over 170 nations participated in the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna to reaffirm their commitment to protecting human rights.


The office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was created to coordinate human rights initiatives. The increasing awareness about human rights protection in international law gave rise to humanitarian intervention, especially in conflict zones. NGO's have contributed significantly to the spread of humanitarian intervention for e.g. ICRC, Oxfam, etc.


The 1990s are described as the "golden age of humanitarian intervention.


Regionalism in international politics.

Solution:


Countries that lie in geographical proximity create or join regional organisations that are based on common political, ideological, economic, and infrastructural concerns. Some nations make special agreements regarding trade and economic cooperation. This is called a trade bloc.


(i) European Union (EU) was created in 1992 by the Maastricht Treaty. It led to increased spheres of cooperation between European nations e.g. foreign affairs, defense, trade, and the creation of the Euro as a common currency. The creation of the Schengen Area is one of the achievements of the EU since the Schengen visa allows eligible individuals to travel freely within the 26 nations of the Schengen area.


(ii) ASEAN created in 1967 with headquarters at Jakarta comprises of 10 South-East Asian nations such as Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. It aims to promote political economic and security cooperation among its members.


(iii) SAARC formed in 1985 at Dhaka with 7 members. Today, it has 8 member countries of South Asia like India, Bhutan, Pakistan, etc. It aims to promote regional integration and economic development. Its main achievement is the SAFTA.


(iv) BIMSTEC - is a regional organisation founded in 1997 comprising of 7 member countries lying around the Bay of Bengal for eg Bangladesh, India. Thailand, Myanmar. It aims to facilitate collaboration in economic, security, and other concerns between member States.


Answer the following.


Explain the term soft power with examples.

Solution:


According to American academic, Joseph Nye there are two types of power viz. hard power and soft power.


(i) Hard power is the ability to get others to act in ways that are contrary to their preferences and wills. It is the ability to coerce through threats and inducements for e.g., Iraq invasion of Kuwait.



(ii)Soft power is when a country influences other countries without the use of military force. It is the ability to get others to want the outcomes that you want i.e. through attraction rather than coercion. Such influence is spread through economic, socio-cultural means. Soft power was an important aspect of US domination. It implied the use of monetary aid, cooperative programmes, cultural exchanges, strong relations with allies. Examples of US soft power are cultural exports like fast-food chains, movies, educational exchange programmes as well as disaster assistance programmes such as tsunami relief (Japan), flood control (Pakistan).


Answer the following question in detail with help of a given point.

Discuss the European Union with help of given points.

(a) History

(b) European Commission

(c) European Parliament

(d) European Council

(e) European Court of Justice


Solution:


(a) History:

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSO) and the European Economic Community (EEC) was created to foster economic interdependence. On 7 February 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed to create the European Union. This led to the expansion of spheres of cooperation to include internal affairs, judicial matters, foreign policy, etc. The Euro (is the official currency of 19 out of 28 countries of the EU. These nations are collectively called Eurozone'.


(b) European Commission:

The Commission is the executive bureaucratic arm of the EU. It is mainly responsible for drawing up proposals for new European legislation and it implements the policy decisions of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU.


(c) European Parliament:

The European Parliament is composed of 751 members, who are directly elected every five years. It is a body entrusted with legislative, supervisory, and budgetary responsibilities.


(d) European Council:

The structure of the European Council consists of the Presidents or Prime Ministers of each Member State, accompanied by their foreign ministers, and a full-time President of the European Council. The European Council meets four times a year and provides strategic leadership for the EU.


(e) European Court of Justice (ECJ):

The ECJ interprets, and adjudicates on, EU law and treaties. As EU law has primacy over the national law of EU Member States.


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