Historiography in the Medieval Period :

Historiography in the Medieval Period : The style of writing ‘Rajtarangini’, the history of Kashmir by Kalhana in the 12th century C.E. is quite close to the concept of modern historiography. Kalhana himself says that he wrote this text after critically examining various sources like inscriptions, coins, remains of ancient monuments, dynastic records and local traditions.

In the medieval India the historians in the courts of Muslim rulers were influenced by Arabic and Persian historiography. Among them Ziauddin Barani holds an important place. In ‘Tarikh-i-Phiruz Shahi’, a book written by him, he has stated the purpose of historiography. According to him the historian’s duty is not limited only to the recording of the ruler’s valour and policies of welfare but he should also write about the ruler’s failings and incorrect policies. Barani further says that a historian should also take into consideration the impact of the teachings of the wise, the learned, and the saints on the cultural life of people. Thus, Barani expanded the scope of historiography.

For the historians in the Mughal courts praising the emperors and exhibition of loyalty became more important. The custom of adding suitable poetic quotes and beautiful pictures was also introduced. Babur, the founder of the Mughal empire wrote an autobiography, entitled, ‘Tuzuk-i-Babari’. It contains the descriptions of the battles fought by him. Babur also recorded his minute observations of various regions and cities travelled by him including the local economy, customs and the flora.

Abul Fazl’s ‘Akbarnama’ is very important from the viewpoint of critical historiography. His method of collecting authentic historical documents and their scrutiny is looked upon as devoid of bias and hence realistic.

‘Bakhar’ is an important type of historical documents of medieval times. It contains eulogies of the heroes and stories of historic events, battles, lives of great men.

Marathi bakhars are of various types. ‘Sabhasad Bakhar’ was written by Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad during the reign of Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj. It is an important bakhar for getting information about the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

‘Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’ describes the Battle of Panipat. Another bakhar, entitled ‘Panipatachi Bakhar’, is also about the same event. ‘Holkaranchi Kaiphiyat’ provides information about the Holkars and their contributions to the Maratha rule.

Bakhars can be divided into various types such as biographies of kings, dynastic history, descriptions of events, history of a sect, autobiographies, regarding grievance, based on mythologies and state administration by a king.

SSC 10th History, Maharashtra Board, 2019 - 2020.
Chapter 2. Historiography : Indian Tradition
1. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct option.

(1) ........ was the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India.

(a) Alexander Cunningham
(b) William Jones 
(c) John Marshall 
(d) Friedrich Max Muller

(2) ............ translated the Sanskrit text of ‘Hitopadesh’.

(a) James Mill
(b) Friedrich max Muller 
(c) Mountstuart Elphinstone 
(d) Sir John Marshall

(B) Identify the wrong pair in the following, correct it and rewrite.

(1) ‘Who were the Shudras’ - Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar
(2) ‘Stri-Purush Tulana’ - Feminist writing
(3) ‘The Indian War of Independence 1857’ - Marxist History
(4) Grant Duff - Colonial History.

Answer: The incorrect pair is: 

The Indian War of Independence, 1857 - Marxist History

The Appropriate Pair is: 

The Indian War of Independence, 1857 - Nationalistic Historiography. 

2. Explain the following with its reason.


3. Answer the following in 25-30 words.


4. Write detailed answers to the following questions :


5. (a) Complete the following chart.
James Mill
‘The History of British India’
James Grant Duff
..............................
..................
‘The History of India’
S.A. Dange
..............................
..................
‘Who were the Shudras’

Answer: 

James Mill
‘The History of British India’
James Grant Duff
'A History of Mahrattas'
Mountstuart Elphinstone
‘The History of India’
S.A. Dange
'Primitive Communism to Slavery'
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
‘Who were the Shudras’

(b) Complete the following concept chart.



Answer: 



6. Explain the following concepts.

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