Ans. 1. In the year 1456, Constantinople was won by the Ottoman Turks.
2. The terrestrial way, the short route to Asia was closed down for the European traders.
3. There had been an increase in the business in Europe.
4. The European felt the need for finding out a new sea route.
5. The European in Europe were curious to begin trade in the eastern nations.
6. Henry, the King of Portugal motivated seafaring.
7. The courageous sailors undertook the task of finding out the marine routes.
8. The sailor's compass and astrolabe newly designed maps and directive books were quite useful in sailing.
9. On the assumption that the earth is not flat but round, the navigator discovered unknown regions in the world.
10. Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Amerigo Vespucci were the sailors who discovered the northern, eastern and central parts of the American continent respectively.
11. Between 1606 and 1732, England set up thirteen colonies in the eastern part of North America.
12. Vasco da Gama found out the sea route to India.