Project on Water Pollution

Introduction Water Pollution
India is a land with many beautiful rivers and countryside. In India many of the rivers are considered to be holy, but water pollution in India has caused many of the rivers to be too polluted for use. Water pollution is a very serious problem in India which is the second most populous nation in the world. It is estimated that over 70% of all of India’s surface water is polluted in some way and many of the groundwater reserves have also been contaminated as a result of biological and industrial pollutants. As more and mre water becomes polluted thewater pollution in India gets more and more severe. Many rivers have been deemed to be unsafe for human consumption which leads to water scarcity. Water pollution in India also makes irrigating crops difficult. If the water supply is too polluted to drink it should not be used for watering crops. With limited sources of water and pollution increasing every day India is facing a serious water crisis.
Water pollution is becoming a huge problem which is faced by all of the human existence and as well as by every wild life species. According to present scales for pollution of water, 10 to 15 billion pounds full of waste materials like garbage is threw in different seas and rivers of the entire world. Not only this, now, as per the latest records for water pollution in India; 20 billion gallons of drinking water pollution also dumped in running rivers and seas.
This serious problem of water pollution is not only serious for the present day but, it is also getting worst on a regular day by day basis. As the seas and rivers have a running current of movement; thus, pollution of water does get transported in to various cities and towns on an immense scale. Not only this but, pollution of water also travel to various locations and hence increase water pollution in India. One more reason for the increasing air and water pollution along with drinking water pollution is because of highly growing industrial sector. These industrial sectors not only results harmfully in increasing drinking water pollution but also increase the air and water pollution on the same time. Another major reason for pollution of water in our country is because of the huge population which is increasing day-by-day. Today, with such huge growing population also the ecosystem is getting effected and giving rise directly to the air and water pollution. Huge population means higher level of water pollution and higher level for pollution of water increases the diseases and death rate for human lives. Thus, rapidly growth in high population is also resulting in increased water pollution in India. Now, if seen clearly and closely on these told water pollution sources, then it can be said that both increasing population and industrialization are the major reason behind the drinking water pollution along with other air and water pollution.

Today, water pollution is the greatest problem which can easily cause harmful affect to the entire ecosystem. Dead animals and wild life species is not a new headline coming from the reason of drinking water pollution along with air and water pollution. Just because of this reason of water pollution in India, many diseases namely: Hepatitis also get transferred by these dead animals. Thus, to stop such problems of water pollution in India, major steps and measures to control it must be taken quickly.

Classifications OF WATER

Class of water
Drinking Water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfection
Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less
pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Dissolved Oxygen 6mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 2mg/l or less
Outdoor bathing (Organised)
Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 500 or less
pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 3mg/l or less
Drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection
Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 5000 or less
pH between 6 to 9
Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more
Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 3mg/l or less
Propagation of Wild life and Fisheries
pH between 6.5 to 8.5
Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more
Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less
Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal
pH betwwn 6.0 to 8.5
Electrical Conductivity at 25oC micro mhos/cm Max. 2250
Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26
Boron Max. 2mg/l

Problems include Pesticides in Groundwater
In India, groundwater is used intensively for irrigation and industrial purposes. Sadly, a variety of land and water based human activities continue to cause water pollution. Despite strict environment laws, there is nothing done to tackle this problem.
Numerous factories in AndhraPradesh, Haryana, Punjab and several other states inject untreated effluents directly into the ground, thereby contaminating underground water. Samples of groundwater collected from various areas of different states in India show high concentration of mercury, iron, zinc, cadmium and lead. Mercury has severe health implications. High levels of mercury can result in neurological disorders, retardation of growth in children, weakening of the immune system, endocrine related problems and several other health hazards.
The intensive use of chemical fertilizers in farms and indiscriminate disposal of human and animal waste on land results in leaching of the residual nitrate, causing high nitrate concentration in the groundwater levels. High levels of pesticides in groundwater pose great risk to the proper functioning of the human nervous system and liver. Groundwater in certain parts of India is totally unsuitable to be used for agriculture. This makes it more dangerous than we think because over 80% of the country’s drinking water requirement is met through groundwater.

Water Pollution Effects
Effects of water pollution in today’s world are numberless and countless. Effect of water pollution is spread on immense area and does not effect the outer environment, but existence of every living being also get worst. There are some major water pollution effects which in the current days is affecting every single organism of the ecosystem. In this description we are going to talk about the increasing effect of water pollution on the entire eco-balance and other additional harmful chemicals which increase it.
If we see closely, then the list of these effects of water pollution will not end up like this only. The list for water pollution effects is long and goes on and on when started. Firstly the thing which gets affected adversely with the effect of water pollution is the ecosystem’s food chain. The entire food chain is connected upon the dependence of each other’s lives which is hindered directly by numerous effects of water pollution. Sudden death due to any water pollution effects harms adversely to another species life span and also takes down the entire chain with it. A simple example of water to animal and animal to humans with the help of meat can be taken to understand the adversely effects of water pollution. Several diseases are also spread just because of the water pollution effects. Diseases like cholera and food poisoning are the beginning stages for the effect of water pollution which are easily caught by any person. Raining of Acidic liquid and chemicals is also one of another reasons and effects of water pollution. Destroying the purity level of the water also comes under the water pollution effects which in results for diseases and temperature problems.
Apart form these, destruction of sea food and the level along with the temperature of water also states guilty to the adversely effect of water pollution. Thus, it can be seen that, with these harmful steps and increased population with increased industrialization, the ecological balance of entire eco system is hindered. Not only on the environment but these effects also impact adversely on ours health. All these problems can be tackled easily with an balanced steps taken by each and every person.
In order to combat the problem of water pollution in India sustainable water systems must be put into place. India is already a very populated country and many estimates predict that the population will continue to rise in the future. This will place an even greater burden on the already dwindling supplies of usable water. Water pollution in India affects the children more severely than any other group of people. Between half a million to one and a half million children under the age of five die every year from diarrhea in India as a direct result of water related diseases. Malaria is also a by-product of contaminated waters and causes many deaths as well. The problem of water pollution in India also leads to fights over what little amounts of useable water there is. Violence has been known to erupt over shared resources of water which threatens the security of India. Fertilizers and pesticides have also made their way into the water supply due to improper soil managements in India. This results in runoff and leaching of toxic chemicals into the ground waters. These dangerous chemicals pose a serious threat to the safety and health of not only humans, but animals and plants as well. A over abundance of fertilizers causes too much algae to grow which depletes the water of oxygen and kills off both plants and animals.
To stem the tide of water pollution in India many steps need to be taken to cut back on contaminants being dumped into the water supplies. There also need to be better regulations, and economic and management policies need to be put into place to reduce the water pollution in India.

Facts About Water Pollution
Today, there are number of news channels and newspapers which issues water pollution articles and water pollution information with them. Most of the countries never feel scarcity of water or do not think about the water pollution facts. People just turn the tap on any time and get water when needed, yet if that is also not satisfactory; they buy water in bottles for drinking indeed. Majority of people is yet not aware for the facts about water pollution. People just enjoy living under these water pollution facts and by then when they come to know about it, it becomes too late.
There are some facts about water pollution which a person needs to know. These water pollution information and water pollution facts include every single status and level of purity of water in our country. Firstly, according to some water pollution articles, a major part of the entire world’s water is salty water and no one can drink it like that. Thus, it is shown everywhere that most of the area of our planet is surrounded with water yet, most of it is not for consuming purpose. Facts about water pollution also describes that 50% of the running water sources like rivers are polluted to carry out the underwater life in them. Keeping these facts about water pollution in mind when a fish can’t survive then people also cannot drink it. According to water pollution articles and water pollution information, our countries lakes have more serious conditions of it than the rivers. Some of the water pollution articles defined that around 50% of them consist so much pollution that it’s not safe to carry some water life in it. Countries like China the facts about water pollution are said to be so serious that every person is not able to have fresh water for them. All these water pollution articles and water pollution information defines that, pollution is the only reason for increasing diseases in the entire world.
In some areas, water pollution information in figures like 300 million people get affected with diseases from having polluted water intake. These are some of the current water pollution facts which are prevailing in entire world. But, somewhere, we people only can be stated as responsible for these water pollution facts for our regions.

Water Pollution Monitoring

Inland water quality monitoring in India is conducted at 480 stations under the following two programmes :
Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS); and
Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources (MINARS)

The Water Quality Monitoring network covers 126 rivers (including the tributaries), wells, lakes, creeks, ponds, tanks, drains and canals. Monitoring of the rivers in North Western Region and a few lakes wells conducted on a quarterly basis and at all the other locations on a monthly basis. Measurements are made for 25 physico-chemical and biological parameters.
The existing water quality level alongwith the desired level, based on the designated-best-use-classification, are presented riverwise : 
Brahmani & Tributaries
Brahmaputra & Tributaries
Cauvery & Tributaries
Ganga & Tributaries
Godavari & Tributaries
Tributaries of Indus
Krishna & Tributaries
Mahi & Tributaries
Mahanadi & Tributaries
Narmada & Tributaries
Sabarmati & Tributaries
Tapi & Tributaries


India’s popular Goa beaches unfit for swimming because of water pollution
·         India’s most popular Goa beaches are unfit for swimming and fishing because of high sewage contamination, Indian scientists have warned.
·         The level of faecal coliform bacteria in coastal and river waters is much higher than the accepted safety standards, said a study by the government-run National Institute of Oceanography.
·         Senior scientist at the institute N. Ramaiah said Friday that the contamination has been measured at 190 so-called colony forming units while safety levels should be at 100 units.
·         Goa is one of the most sought after beach destinations in India. It attracts nearly 2.6 million tourists annually, including nearly half a million foreigners, mostly from Britain, Russia and Germany.
·         Ramaiah and other scientists at the institute released their findings last month after a study of water pollution in the region over the past six years.
“When you enter the water, it forms a film around your body. It is fortunate that external contamination is rare. But if you have a cut on your skin or a wound, it could be serious,” he told The Associated Press.
·         Raw sewage has been disposed in the Mandovi and Zuari rivers for decades and the situation has worsened with the rise in population on the river banks, Ramaiah said.
·         Simon de Souza, chairman of state-appointed Goa State Pollution Control Board, expressed surprise at the findings and said that the state needed an extensive sewerage system to arrest the sea water pollution.
·         A proper sewerage system would ensure treatment of waste before it is discharged into water bodies, he said.
·         “We insist on sewage treatment plants for hotels which have 25 rooms or more. But those with lesser number of rooms use septic tanks, which indirectly flow into the ground water and from there into the sea,” said de Souza.
·         Manguirish Pai Raikar, chairman of the Goa Chamber of Commerce and Industry, said he would take up the pollution issue with the state government. The chamber groups top state industrialists.
·         “God forbid, if there is an epidemic, there will be an advisory against visiting Goa and that will be the end of the tourism industry,”

Ganga River pollution in India
Ganga is becoming toxic day by day. Most ancient civilizations grew along the banks of rivers. Even today, millions of people all over the world live on the banks of rivers and depend on them for their survival.
All of us have seen a river – large or small, either flowing through our town, or somewhere else. Rivers are nothing more than surface water flowing down from a higher altitude to a lower altitude due to the pull of gravity. One river might have its source in a glacier, another in a spring or a lake. Rivers carry dissolved minerals, organic compounds, small grains of sand, gravel, and other material as they flow downstream. Rivers begin as small streams, which grow wider as smaller streams and rivers join them along their course across the land. Eventually they flow into seas or oceans. Unfortunately most of the world’s major rivers are heavily polluted.
The pollution of environment is the ‘gift’ of the industrial revolution. Prior to this the agrarian cultures created significant environmental deterioration in the form of soil erosion- through deforestation and overgrazing. The environmental degradation is a by product of modern civilization.
There has been a steady deterioration in the quality of water of Indian rivers over several decades. India’s fourteen major, 55 minor and several hundred small rivers receive millions of litres of sewage, industrial and agricultural wastes. Most of these rivers have been rendered to the level of sewage flowing drains. There are serious water quality problems in the cities, towns and villages using these waters. Water borne diseases are rampant, fisheries are on decline, and even cattle are not spared from the onslaught of pollution.
According to World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) five rivers in Asia serving over 870 million people are among the most threatened in the world, as dams, water extraction and climate change all take their toll.
The Ganges, Indus, Yangtze, Salween-Nu and Mekong-Lancang rivers make up half of the WWF’s “top ten” most threatened river basins.
India has a large number of rivers that are lifelines for the millions living along their banks. These rivers can be categorized into four groups:
1.Rivers that flow down from the Himalayas and are supplied by melting snow and glaciers. This is why these are perennial, that is, they never dry up during the year.
2.The Deccan Plateau rivers, which depend on rainfall for their water.
3.The coastal rivers, especially those on the west coast, which are short and do not retain water throughout the year.
4.The rivers in the inland drainage basin of west Rajasthan, which depend on the rains. These rivers normally drain towards silt lakes or flow into the sand.
River Ganga (Ganges) of India has been held in high esteem since time immemorial and Hindus from all over the world cherish the idea of a holy dip in the river under the faith that by doing so they will get rid of their sins of life. More than 400 million people live along the Ganges River. An estimated 2,000,000 persons ritually bathe daily in the river. Historically also, Ganga is the most important river of the country and beyond doubt is closely connected with the history of civilization as can be noticed from the location of the ancient cities of Hardwar, Prayag, Kashi and Patliputra at its bank. To millions of people it is sustainer of life through multitude of canal system and irrigation of the wasting load. Hundreds of the villages and even the big cities depend for their drinking water on this river. It is believed, a fact which has also been observed, that the water of Ganga never decays even for months and years when water of other rivers and agencies begins to develop bacteria and fungi within a couple of days. This self purification characteristics of Ganga is the key to the holiness and sanctity of its water. The combination of bacteriophages and large populations of people bathing in the river have apparently produced a self-purification effect, in which water-borne bacteria such as dysentery and cholera are killed off, preventing large-scale epidemics. The river also has an unusual ability to retain dissolved oxygen.
With growing civilization and population all over how long Ganga will retain its self purification characteristics only time can judge.

Water Pollution Solutions
Today, water pollution is one of the serious concerns for each and every country around the world. Thus, for this purpose there are numerous of laws and regulations for water pollution solutions are been imposed everywhere. But, then also drawbacks are faced by these solutions to water pollution. Reason behind the drawbacks for water pollution solutions in India is not by its imposition but in some regions enforcement of these rules are not that much strict in comparisons to others.
To get control and to impose these water pollution solutions literally in every places, government just have to again place the regulations and rules regarding it. Moreover some effective water pollution solutions in India involves the reduction in manures and chemical usages and promoting a bio-dynamic cultivation for farming purposes. Lesser deforestation and creating ponds to lower the level of flow which enters under the surface as underground water are also major water pollution solutions. In another possible solutions to water pollution is to lower the level of usage for chemicals and other pesticides for farming process. By utilizing lesser or stopping gradually the usage of fertilizers and such chemicals also can be considered as very effective water pollution solutions in India. Some other solutions to water pollution are like, re-establishment of wetlands and filtration of waste materials. Driving fewer vehicles also results as better water pollution solutions. Better sewage and reduction of other dumping waste materials in seas and oceans also acts as solutions to water pollution. Conservation of water and better techniques for the managing the storm water are also good water pollution solutions in India.
Changes for water pollution solutions in India not only can take place on the national level but, individuals can contribute a lot in it. Any single person can also help in solutions to water pollution. By purchasing green products like organic products and individual protections for usage of chemicals in our daily life can also results in better water pollution solutions. It is a duty of every citizen to properly place the garbage and dispose off it to a right place which can reduce the unwanted chemical flow in the atmosphere and also reduces the waste materials which are dumped in seas and oceans.

Water Pollution Prevention
Water pollution prevention in India is the most important work for the environment which includes the support from both government and as well as form people also. For this water pollution control various rules and regulations under various acts are imposed on several sectors. Mostly this prevention of water pollution acts are imposed on the industrial sector than any other. As increasing pollution is becoming a serious problem these days, thus, water pollution prevention procedure is been working with its full efficiency.
Major part of the country is affected and working on water pollution prevention in India with these sorts of water and air pollutions just because of the industrial sector. This heavy industrialization with bigger area of working chemical factories directly dumps tons of waste chemicals and materials in seas and oceans against water pollution control which causes such problems. Things which are needed for water pollution prevention in India are sudden change and gradual action should be taken toward it. Bann on dumping of waste materials and hazardous chemicals can also act as a good water pollution control. It can be understood that dumping is not the way to get rid of the waste materials and also make hurdles in the path for prevention of water pollution. Primary education and awareness is also a good measure for water pollution prevention. There have been many programs started similarly to this water pollution prevention in India. Water pollution control can also be done by lowering the usage of chemicals and fertilizers. Personal precautions like driving lesser vehicles can also prove to be a good prevention of water pollution. Above all, a better water pollution prevention needs a higher level of interest which must be given upon it.
Apart form above water pollution prevention steps, installation of filtration system is also a good step. It is the most effective and working prevention of water pollution. At homes clearing up drains also acts as water pollution control. Water conservation is also a step for water pollution prevention in India. Education and identification for such problems also helps in prevention of water pollution. Hence, it can be noticed that, a small effort from cleaning the waste before throwing in to garbage or drains can also contribute a lot in water pollution prevention.