Soils of the Ganga Plain

1. Throughout the Ganga Plain in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, alluvial soil is found.
2. In the Upper Ganga Plain, the Bhabar belt has sand and gravel, while the Tarai has sandy clay with humus and moisture. The newer Khadar alluvial soils are highly alkaline, but lack humus.
3. The older Bangar alluvial soils are mature, but lack salts, lime and alkalinity. The Khadar tracts have higher water table than the Bangar.
4. The middle Ganga Plain has immature alluvial soils. Due to a poor drainage, there is accumulation of sodium salts that renders the soil infertile. The soils generally lack nitrogen and need manure and fertilizers.
5. The Lower Ganga Plain has Laterite, red and alluvial soils. Laterite soils exist in the southwestern part. They are acidic and lack humus. Red soils are also acidic and deficient in humus. Tarai soils also lack humus.

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