Social And Religious Reforms Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Social And Religious Reforms

Class 8th History (new) MHB Solution

Exercise
  1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options. (Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Swami…
  2. Complete the following table.
  3. The Social and religious reform movement began in India. Explain the following statements…
  4. Mahatma Phule conducted a strike of barbers. Explain the following statements with…
  5. Ramakrishna Mission Write Short notes.
  6. Reforms for women by Savitribai Phule Write Short notes.
Project
  1. Organize an essay competition on the topic ‘Education of women’.
  2. Collect the photographs of social reformers.

Exercise

Question 1.

Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.

(Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Swami Vivekananda, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde)

(a) .......... established the Ramakrishna Mission.

(b) The Anglo-Mohammedan Oriental College was established by...............

(c) The Depressed Classes Mission was founded by...............


Answer:

(a) Swami Vivekananda


The mission is named after and motivated by the Indian saint Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and founded by Ramakrishna's chief follower Swami Vivekananda on 1 May 1897.


(b) Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan


The Anglo–Indian statesman Sir Syed Ahmad Khan established Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College. It’s given Urdu name was Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind.


(c) Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde


He laid the foundation of Depressed Class Mission on 18 October 1906 in order to work against untouchability on the national level.



Question 2.

Complete the following table.



Answer:



Question 3.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

The Social and religious reform movement began in India.


Answer:

Social-religious reforms in the 19th century helped in the growth of Indian Nationalism. The main reason for the emergence of the reform movements was the spread of western education and liberal ideas. These reforms started in Bengal and later spread in all parts of India. All the reform movements demanded changes in society through social or education transformations.


There are several reasons for the emergence of social and religious reform movements. They are:


• THE CONDITION OF WOMEN WAS VERY PATHETIC.


Women’s problems like Sati, female infanticide, widow remarriage, lack of education etc


• THE CONDITION OF DALITS (SHUDRAS) AND THE LOWER CASTES WERE SO DREADFUL


Casteism and untouchability remained very strong, and the marginalized people were not allowed any freedom in any field of their social life.


• ISSUES IN RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS


Idolatry, polytheism, religious superstitions and exploitation by priests were unbearable.



Question 4.

Explain the following statements with reasons.

Mahatma Phule conducted a strike of barbers.


Answer:

It was in 11th April 1827 that Mahatma Phule conducted a strike of barbers. he launched the first-ever campaign for widow remarriage. He worked along with Vishnu Shastri Bapat. Phule travelled from place to place for this motive. He also ran child care home for children and widows. His wife Savitribhai Phule also accompanied him in all social activities. They took the responsibility to protect the Brahmin widow and took bold steps to encourage widow remarriage.


The main reasons for the strike of barbers were:


• To make the barbers to boycott the custom of shaving the head of the Brahmin widow. It was the scariest custom among the Brahmins, and after removing the hair, the widow was completely put in isolation and treated as the symbol of ultimate bad luck.


• He was totally against the custom of widowhood.


• He wanted to ensure residents of the poor young widows and also make a change in the attitude of Brahmins and other people towards widows.


• He wanted to ensure a better living condition to widows.



Question 5.

Write Short notes.

Ramakrishna Mission


Answer:

Ramakrishna mission was one of the most important social reform organization in the 20th century. The mission is named after and inspired by the Indian saint Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and founded by Ramakrishna's chief disciple Swami Vivekananda on 1 May 1897.


A) Motives of the organization


The organization chiefly propagates to the Hindu philosophy of Vedanta–Advaita Vedanta and four yogic ideals–jnana, bhakti, karma, and Raja Yoga.


B) Principles of the organization


• Entirely holy and humanitarian and has no connection with any politics.


• "Renunciation and service" -the work of the mission strive to practice and preach these.


• The service actions are based on the message of "Jiva is Shiva" from Ramakrishna and Vivekananda's message of "Daridra Narayana" to specify that service to poor is service to God.


• The Principles of Upanishads and Yoga in Bhagavad Gita explained in the light of Ramakrishna's Life and Teachings is the main source of inspiration for the Mission.


• The service activities are rendered looking upon all like a real manifestation of the Divine. The Motto of the organization is Atmano Mokshartham Jagad-hitaya Cha. It means ‘for one's own salvation, and for the good of the world’.


C) Area of Social activities


The principal workers of the mission are the monks. The mission's actions cover the following areas:


• schooling


• wellbeing and health care


• Cultural activities


• Rural support


• Tribal welfare


• Youth movement etc.


D) The important social activities


• Hospitals, charitable dispensaries, maternity clinics, tuberculosis clinics, and mobile dispensaries.


• Training centres for nurses.


• Orphanages and homes for the elderly are included in the mission's field of activities, along with rural and tribal welfare work.


• Renowned educational institutions in India, having its own university, colleges, vocational training centres, high schools and primary schools, teacher-training institutes, as well as schools for the visually handicapped.


• Disaster relief operations during scarcity, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake, storm and communal disturbances.


• The installation of photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems in the Sundarbans region of West Bengal. The PV lighting was used to supply electricity to the people who were depending on kerosene and diesel.


Ramakrishna mission was a part of religious and holy teaching. At the same time, the organization carries out extensive educational and charitable work in India. This aspect is the important feature of many other Hindu movements. The mission bases its work on the principles of karma yoga, the code of unselfish work done with dedication to God.



Question 6.

Write Short notes.

Reforms for women by Savitribai Phule


Answer:

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule (3 January 1831 – 10 March 1897) was an Indian social reformer, educationalist and poet. She is considered as the first lady teacher of India. She was the wife of the great social reformer Jyotirao Phule. Her role in improving women's rights in India during British rule was huge.


The following are her main social reforms:


• Savitribhai Phule, along with her husband founded the first girls' school in Pune ran by native Indians at Bhide Wada in 1848.


• To check the school dropout rate, Savitribai on the go did the practice of giving stipends to children for attending school. She remained an inspiration for the young girls she taught. She encouraged them to take up activities like writing and painting.


• She worked to abolish the discrimination and unfair conduct of people based on caste and gender.


•Together with her husband, she taught children from different castes and started a total of 18 schools.


• The couple also opened a care centre called Balhatya Pratibandhak Grihafor pregnant rape victims and helped deliver their children.


•In 1863, Jyotirao and Savitribai also started a care centre called ‘Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha,’ the first-ever infanticide prohibition home founded in India.


•She was also connected with a social reform society called ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ founded by Jyotirao on September 24, 1873, in Pune.


•She and her husband worked hard during the famines starting from 1876. They distributed free food in different areas and also launched 52 free food hostels in Maharashtra.


• She also raised her voice against caste and gender discrimination.


• She has become an icon in particular, for the Dalit Mang caste and other marginalized people.


• She was the leader of the ‘strike of barbers’ which was against shaving the heads of Brahmin widows.


Thus Savitribhai Phule is considered as one of the most efficient women in the 19th century. Her acts are so noticeable because the condition of women in those times were so feeble and horrible. She empowered other women. She is regarded as an important figure of the social reform movement not only in Maharashtra but also in whole India.




Project

Question 1.

Organize an essay competition on the topic ‘Education of women’.


Answer:

The condition of women in the present society is far better when compared to that of in the 18th and 19th centuries. Women were treated as secondary human beings, and the laws were only favourable to men. But lower castes men too suffered all sorts of exploitations from the British, landlords and other people of upper castes.


The 19th century saw the beginning of the social and religious reform organizations and movements which focused on the empowerment of women. Arya Samaj, Brahma Samaj, Satyashodhak Samaj etc. are a few of them. Most of them had a religious base, but all focused on the education of women.


IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN EDUCATION


• A quote says like this, “If you educate a man, you educate an individual. But if you educate a woman, you educate a nation. When girls are educated, their countries become stronger and more prosperous. One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world.” It indicates the importance of educating a girl child.


• World Education believes that education for girls and women is an effective way to better the lives of individual families as well as to bring economic growth to poor communities worldwide.


• Educated women are the weapons who yield a positive impact on the Indian society through their contribution at home and professional fields.


• Education helps women to gain greater knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and capabilities, improving their own life prospects


• Educated women offer better nutrition, health care, and education for her family.


• Education enables a woman to take greater control of her life to involve in decision-making processes,


• Education allows women to gain the potential to contribute socially and economically to her family’s and community’s wellbeing.


• Women education programmes spread the importance and improve the level of women education all over the country


• An educated woman can educate her complete family and thus the whole country


NEED FOR WOMEN EDUCATION


Women cover almost half the population of the country means if women are uneducated the half country is uneducated which brings poor socio-economic condition. Women should be given equal occasion in education like men, and they should not be isolated from any development activities. Through the women education, social and economic development will be faster in a society. countrywide national propaganda and awareness programmes are very necessary. But it is a fact that women are denied their right to education and two-thirds of the world’s illiterate adults are women.


“Experience has shown that when women have the freedom to make their own economic and social choices, the chains of poverty can be broken; families are strengthened; income is used for more productive purposes; the spread of sexually transmitted disease slows; and socially constructive values are more likely to be handed down to the young.”Says Madeleine Albright. Therefore necessary steps are to be taken by each individual as well as the authority, to educate women and girl children.



Question 2.

Collect the photographs of social reformers.


Answer:

1) VITTHAL RAMJI SHINDE



2)RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY



3) SAVITRIBHAI PHULE



4) SWAMI DAYANANDA SARASWATHI



5) SIR SAYYAD AHMAD KHAN



6) JYOTHIRAO PHULE



7) SWAMI VIVEKANANDA



8) BAL GANGADHAR THILAK


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