Practical Name: Perform science simulation from Phet Interactive Simulations website.

Tools/Software: Computer with Internet Connection and Browser like Mozilla, Chrome, etc.


  1. Launch Google Chrome.
  2. Type the url in the address bar and press enter key.
  3. Under the HOW TO RUN SIMULATION on the home page click on the one at a time.
  4. You will see a long list of simple simulations for physics education. Select any one out of the list.
  5. Select open/run/ save the simulation file, select open or run.
  6. You may see more controls to interactively change some parameters or move objects using the mouse.

  Geometric Optics.
a)      The geometric optics simulates refraction through a convex lens. Here the simulation shows an object, its real image and two marginal rays. The three sliders all you to change the radius of curvature, refractive index and diameter of the lens.
b)      Change the radius of curvature or the refractive index and see how each affects the focal length of the lens and hence the image distance.
c)      Display the ruler and measure the focal length, object distance and image distance with the ruler.
d)      Change the radius of curvature and the refractive index and record the observation.
Bending Light
a)      The bending light simulates refraction at the interface between two mediums and refraction through a prism. The simulation starts showing a laser and two mediums – incident and transmitted. The toolbox gives a protractor and intensity meter.
b)      Switch on the laser by clicking on the large red switch. You will see the incident ray, reflected ray and refracted ray. Drag the protractor and place it at the point of incidence, reflected ray and refracted ray. Drag the intensity meter out if the toolbox.
c)      Drag the laser to rotate it to see the how the angle of incidence affects the angle of refraction and the intensity of reflected ray. Repeat by changing the refractive index of the transmitted medium.

d)      Position the incident angle and record the observations.

Result:  Downloaded and solved simulation and recorded the observations.