PARTS OF SPEECH

1) Noun 

2) Pronoun 

3) Verb 

4) Adjective 

5) Adverb 

6) Preposition 

7) Conjunction 

8) Interjection


1.NOUN नाम : व्यक्ती, वस्तु ठीकाणाला दिलेले नाव म्हणजे नाम होय. A name of person, place and thing is noun. EXAMPLE: Krishna, teacher, book, room, river, rose, lion, village, Gadchandur, apple, hen, courage, freedom, education, management, happiness, length, womanhood, man, peace, Marathi, Physics, Economics, Commerce, temple,hand, tree, Maharashtra, India, Asia, Stadium. etc


A: Functions of Noun: नामाची कार्ये


1) As a subject / doer of action कर्ता म्ह्णुन a) A teacher teaches a lesson. b) Students read books. c) India is a developed country. d) Treesgive us shade. 

2) As an Object कर्म म्ह्णुन a) Human body needs nutrients. b) We learn grammar.


3) As a Compliment पुरक शब्द म्ह्णुन. a) He is a teacher. b) We are students. c) An apple is red. d) He is angry.


B: KINDS OF NOUN : 

1. Proper Noun, 

2. Common Noun, 

3. Abstract Noun. 

4. Collective Noun


1.Proper Noun विशेष नाम : व्यक्तीला, ठीकानाला दिलेले विशीष्ट नाव म्ह्णजे Proper Noun होय. Examples : Mayank, Anagha, Korpana, Akola, Chandrapur, Mukutban, Irai, Ganga, Manikgarh, Himalaya, Maharashtra, India, Wani, Yavatmal ( पहिले अक्षर capital लिहावे


2. Common Noun सामान्य नाम : Examples : boy, girl, man, woman, village, city, town, river, fort, mountain, state, nation


3.Abstract Noun अमुर्त नाम : Examples : birth, charity, bravery, courage, patience, nationality, knowledge, advice, entertainment, beauty, calmness, prevention. 

4.Collective Noun समुह नाम : Examples : crowd, class, fleet, army, platoon, swarm, flock


2. PRONOUN सर्वनाम: नामाच्या ऎवजी वापरलेल्या शब्दाला pronoun म्ह्णतात. ( A word used instead of noun is pronoun.)


I हे प्रथम पुरुषी सर्वनाम स्वत:साठी वापरल्या जाते. We स्वत:सह इतरासाठी वापरल्या जाते.
You हेद्वीतीय पुरुषी सर्वनाम ज्याच्यांशी बोलतो त्याच्यांसाठी त्यांच्या नावाऎवजी वापरल्या जाते. He, She, It, They हे त्रुतीय पुरुषी सर्वनामे ज्यांच्याबद्द्ल बोलायचे असते त्यांच्यासाठी वापरल्या जाते.



सर्वनाम प्रकार
कर्ता
कर्म
मालकीदर्शक
प्रथम पुरुषी एकवचनी
I मी
me मला
my माझे
प्रथम पुरुषी अनेकवचनी
We आम्ही
us आम्हाला
our आमचे, ची, चा
व्दितीय पुरुषी एक/अनेकवचनी
You तु, तुम्ही
you तुला, तुम्हाला
your तुमचे, ची, चा
त्रुतीय पुरुषी एकवचनी
He तो
him त्याला
his त्याचे
त्रुतीय पुरुषी एकवचनी
She ती
her तीला
her तीचे, चा
त्रुतीय पुरुषी एकवचनी
It ते
it ते
its त्याचे, चा
त्रुतीय पुरुषी अनेकवचनी
They ते, त्या
them त्यांना
their त्यांचे, चा


Observe the usage of pronoun and its forms.


I am a student. My name is Ankit. My mother's name is Reshma. She is a teacher. I help her in household chores. Her school is far from our home. My father's name is Kamlakar. He is a doctor. His hospital is very big. Patients consider him a very good doctor. My parents are very kind. They love me very much. You also will like them. We have a car. It is dusky brown.


3.ADJECTIVE विषेशण : नाम किंवा सर्वनाम या विषयी माहिती देणार्या शब्दाला विषेशण म्ह्णतात. (A word that tells something about noun or pronoun is known as Adjective.) 

Examples: poor student sickpeople, weak people, blind musician, brave men courageous soldier, dangerous path, greenfield, joyful ride, narrative passage, national leader, spoken language, interesting film विशेषणांची superlative आणि comparative रुपे पुढील प्रमाणे आहे.



Positive Adj.
Comparative Adj.
Superlative Adj.
rich
richer
richest
short
shorter
shortest
wise
wiser
wisest
large
larger
largest
big
bigger
biggest
cruel

crueller

cruellest
fat

fatter

fattest
easy

easier

easiest
pretty

prettier

prettiest
mighty

mightier

mightiest
attractive

more attractive

most attractive
important

more important

most important
powerful

more powerful

most powerful
good

better

best
bad

worse

worst


4.VERB क्रियापद : क्रियादर्शक शब्द म्हणजे क्रियापद होय. ( A word that denotes an action is called verb.)
EXAMPLES: apply, bend, come, decide, enable, fight, inform, jump, kick, lie, make, nourish, opine, pamper, quit, run, stop, tie, unite, vanish, wash, yawn, वाक्याचा काळ आणि कर्ता लक्षात घेवुन क्रियापदाचे विवीध रुपे वापरावे लागतात. ती रुपे साधारणपणे पाच आहेत.



V1
Past Form V2
Past Participle V3
V4
V5
take
took
taken
taking
takes
play
played
played
playing
plays
read
read
read
reading
reads
catch
caught
caught
catching
catches
win
won
won
winning
wins
see
saw
seen
seeing
sees
fly
flew
flown
flying
flies
क्रियापदाचे रुपे आणि त्यांचे उपयोग

V1 चा उपयोग Simple Present Tense मध्ये कर्ता I, We, You, They अथवा तृतिय पुरुषी अनेकवचनी असल्यास केल्या जातो.

V2 चा उपयोग Simple Past Tense केल्या जातो.

V3 चा उपयोग Present Perfect Tense, Past Perfect Tense, Future Perfect Tense तसेच वाक्याचे Passive Voice करतांना केल्या जातो.

V4 चा उपयोग कोणत्याहि काळाच्या Continuous form मध्ये केल्या जातो.

V5 चा उपयोग Simple Present Tense मध्ये जेव्हा कर्ता तृतिय पुरुषी एकवचनी असतो तेव्हा केल्या जातो.


6. ADVERB : क्रियापद किंवा विशेषण याबद्दल माहिती देणारा शब्द म्ह्णजे क्रियाविशेषण Adverb होय. (A word that describes a verb or adjective is called Adverb.) क्रिया कशी घडली/घडते हे सांगण्याचे काम Adverb करते. विशेषणास ly हे प्रत्यय लावुन adverb तयार केल्या जात
Example : joufully, skillfully. courageously, fast, very, naturally, cleverly, happily, sadly, slowly, easily, bravely, simply, brightly.


7. PREPOSITION : नामाच्या पुर्वी येणार्‍या व दुसर्‍या शब्दाशी त्या नामाचा संबंध व्यक्त करणार्‍या शब्दास Preposition म्ह्णतात. (A preposition is a word placed before a noun to show its relation with other word.) Examples:
in-आत

1.   Mother is in the kitchen.
2.   There are seven days in a week.
3.   We live in Chandrapur district.
4.   Mahatma Gandhi was born in 1869.
into-च्या आत (वेगाने)
5.   He jumped into the river.
on-च्या वर(स्पर्श करुन) ,ला
6.   A book is on a table.
7.   We celebrate Christmas on 25 December.
8.   He was absent on Monday.
over-च्या वर (स्पर्श नसुन)
9.   A fan is over our head.
under-खाली
10.               A cat is under a table.
between-दोघांच्या मध्ये
11.               B is between A and C.
among अनेकाच्या मध्ये
12.               The teacher is standing among the students.
for साठी
13.               I bought a doll for her.
of चा, ची, चे
14.               This is a pen of Jayant.
at-कडे, ला
15.               We live at Korpana.
16.               I get up at 5:30 A.M.
beside च्या बाजुला
17.               Sit beside me.
with च्या सह
18.               Come with me.
19.               Cut with knife.
by ने, च्या कडुन
20.               Trees are cut with axe by people.
21.               We travel by bus.
to च्या कडे, ला
22.               We go to school.
up वरच्या दिशेने
23.               The dog is looking up.
down खालच्या दिशेने
24.               They came down the hill.
fromच्या पासुन
25.               Chandrapur is 25 kms. form Rajura.
acrossच्या पलीकडे
26.               They sail across the ocean.
throughच्या मधुन
27.               The thief entered through the window.
behindच्या मागे
28.               My house is behind the post-office.
off च्या पासुन दुर
29.               The students of our school ran off the road.


 EXERCISE

Fill in the blanks with preposition.

रिकाम्या जागेत Preposition भरतांना वाक्याचा अर्थ व Preposition चा अर्थ लक्षात घ्यावा.
1.   Our prayer starts_____ 7:10 A.M (at, on)
2.   The plane flew _____our viilage.(over, on)
3.   We have holiday ____ Sunday.(on, at)
4.   He was arrested ____ police.(by, from)
5.   2 is _____1 and 3.(in , between)
6.   There are 30 days __a month.(on/ in)
7.   We write ___a pen. (with, by)
8.   He took a pencil___Jaya. (of, Off)
9.   He went ___Mumbai.(to, on)
10.               We buy things ____ shop.(in, from)
अधिक अभ्यासासाठी पाठातील preposition असणारी वाक्य शोधुन लिहावी. Preposition ने वेळ, ठीकाण, दिशा दर्शविल्या जाते.

Look at the following sentences and state what the underlined prepositions indicate.

1.   India got freedom in 1947.
2.   The train arrived at 10 O'clock.
3.   The TajMahal was built in Agra.
4.   Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujrat.
5.   India's Constitution was implemented on 26th of January 1950.
6.   They set up a tent on hill.
7.   They sailed across the ocean.
8.   The bus moved along the road.
9.   The boys threw stones at the frog.
10.               Mother is in the kitchen.

Key 1. time 2. time 3. place 4. place, place 5.time 6. place 7. direction 8. direction 9. direction 10. place.